With hindsight, it was always going to be a logical step for Allied countries to say “au revoir” to Madame Guérin and her poppies, made by the widows and orphans in the devastated regions of France.  All the countries recognised the benefit of the Poppy Days and Drives and how the collections helped swell the coffers of their respective Veterans’ organisations.  One by one, each country put itself and its own returned veterans before France – they did not want to share the proceeds from poppy sales any longer.   But Poppy Lady Madame Guérin needed to carry on because Northern France was still devastated.

Les Boeufs, near Ginchy, Somme. France remained devastated. Courtesy of Heather Anne Johnson.

Les Boeufs, near Ginchy, Somme. France remained devastated. Courtesy of Heather Anne Johnson.


The May 1921 Memorial Day and nationwide Poppy Days/Drives conducted by Madame Guérin’s American-Franco Children’s League were over but the fight for the poppy in the USA was not.   The American “au revoir” was the most complicated farewell of all the Allies.

On 09 June 1921, a tragic twist of fate occurred … Anna Guérin’s ally, American Legion National Commander Colonel Frederick W. Galbraith Jr. (of Cincinnati), was killed in a car crash at Indianapolis.  Anna’s Synopsis described that time [sic]:

“(Colonel Galbraith had been killed in an automobile accident by now) Colonel Bolles and all my friends gathered around me to ask what was to be done .  This [daisy] resolution had been passed so swiftly that they had realised that it meant too late . I said That WE WERE TO FOLLOW THE IDEA OF COLONEL GALBRAITH : CARRY THE FLANDERS POPPIES TO ALL THE ALLIED COUNTRIES , organise for them , for the benefit of their Veterans organisations and in MEMORIAM of their Heroes , a National POPPY DAY each year on Armistice Day (as the other countries had no DECORATION DAY , and continue them in the U. S.”

Frederick W. Galbraith Jr - Madame Guérin's ally. Image edited from Evening Public Ledger, 16 November 1920.

Frederick W. Galbraith Jr – Madame Guérin’s ally. Image edited from Evening Public Ledger, 16 November 1920.

Colonel Galbraith’s body laid in state in the Great rotunda of the Cincinnati Music Hall on Saturday, 11 June – from 10 a. m. until the funeral service began there at 2 p. m. The casket was guarded by regular soldiers from Fort Thomas, Kentucky.

South Bend News-Times of Indianapolis, on 12 June 1921, described the day: “Thousands of people from all walks of life this afternoon paid their last solemn tribute to the memory of Col. Frederick W. Galbraith … … while there was an endless procession of mourning men, women and children passing the body of Col. Galbraith which lay in state in the rotunda of the great building, every one of the four thousand seats in the auditorium were taken.” 

Theodore Roosevelt (the assistant secretary of the navy), attended on behalf of the federal government.  He was one of several VIP’s present and one of those giving an eulogy.   His tribute to Colonel Galbraith was a moving one: “In his address Mr. Roosevelt said “In the great civic movements that have strengthened our cities, through the toil of every day life, on the shell torn battlefields of France – wherever service could be rendered, there you found Col. Galbraith, at the forefront of the battle, gallantly fighting for the right. 

Pays High Tribute.  “We mourn his death, but we are proud of his life.  We shall miss him in the troubled days that lie before us, but our faith in our country is strengthened in that it can breed such men.  Good citizen, tender husband and father, valiant soldier, splendid idealist – his death has left us poorer, but his life has left us richer.  His pilgrimage is gloriously finished.”

The funeral cortège left the hall at approximately 3 p. m. and the service at the cemetery was reported as “brief”.  “Taps” were sounded by a corps of buglers and a salute was fired by a squad from Fort Thomas.

Funeral cortège of Madame Guérin's Ally Colonel Frederick W. Galbraith, 12 June 1921. Le Meschacebe (Lucy, Louisiana): 02 July 1921.

Funeral cortège of Madame Guérin’s Ally Colonel Frederick W. Galbraith, 12 June 1921. Le Meschacebe (Lucy, Louisiana): 02 July 1921.

Amidst her 1921 campaign in Canada, Anna Guérin made a ‘flying visit’ to the USA.  She had left Canada after meeting women of the Imperial Order Daughters of the Empire (I.O.D.E.) and the Great War Veterans’ Association (G.W.V.A.) Women’s Auxiliary on the 26th October in Winnipeg, to make her way to Missouri – to attend the 3rd American Legion convention. 

In her 1941 Synopsis Anna Guérin wrote this about that Convention [sic]: “I went to the National Convention of the American Legion , in Kansas , where I had been invited as Marechal Foch was to be there .  In Kansas City THE AMERICAN LEGION AUXILIARY was formed and while the American Legion Auxiliary was adopting the Flanders ’ Poppy as Symbol , at the Convention of the American Legion they had repudiated it to take the DAISY .”   This was the resolution referred to earlier, when Anna wrote about Colonel Frederick W. Galbraith’s death.

The convention was held in Kansas City, Missouri from 31 October to 02 November 1921, and many “world famous heroes” were guests of honour there: Marshall Foch (France); Earl Beatty (GB); General Diaz (Italy); General Jacques (Belgium); and Gen. J. J. Pershing (USA).

“These Heroes Will Attend Third Annual American Legion Convention, Kansas” FAMOUS HONOR GUESTS AT LEGION CONVENTION--Top, Left to right: Marshal Foch of France; Admiral Beatty of England; General Diaz of Italy. Below: General Pershing and Admiral Sims.” The Tennessean (of Nashville, Tennessee) 28 October 1921.

These Heroes Will Attend Third Annual American Legion Convention, Kansas
Admiral Beatty of England; General Diaz of Italy. Below: General Pershing and Admiral Sims.”
The Tennessean (of Nashville, Tennessee) 28 October 1921.

The following is a link to a great piece of film footage, which shows the aforementioned military men and all the American Legion men and the associated crowds of thousands:

Moina Michael may also have attended this convention or, at least, she appears to have been in Kansas City at the same time (?) – because Anna wrote a letter to Moina Michael (08 Feb. 1922), explaining she had tried Moina’s room “very often” but to no avail.

At the convention, Anna fought for the poppy again but the American Legion “repudiated its action of 1920 in choosing the Shirley poppy as its official flower and substituted the daisy.”  In that same aforementioned letter to Moina Michael, Anna wrote about this decision: I was very worried because I knew it was very important to have the National Convention of the women … adopt the Flanders Field Poppy as their Memorial Flower, even if I did not know that the Daisy would be brought out. …”

“… The American Legion auxiliary did adopt the Poppy as Their Memorial  Flower.   So I asked to speak to their executive Committee to present to them the proposition as it had been adopted already by many Allied nations: “To help a little longer the poor women of the Northern part of France buy the poppies they will make 4 cents each and let us make next decoration Day a National Poppy Day with the help of all other patriotic organizations, each town keeping for their own relief work every theing [sic] they make above the cost price.   And as this year the Poppies from France will be sold less than 10 cents, which will be a great profit to every local Charity Committee.

And I said to them that their headquarters could sell the poppies throughout the country 4 cents 1/2 so they would have an annual source of resources for their Headquarters, quite legitimate, and which would allow them to carry on better their great work. 

I told them that this Idea was worked in this Principle in Canada, in England, in Australia, in New Zealand, for Armistice Day which was the Memorial Day chosen by the British Empire.  That in all those countries they were expecting this year, which was the first year of trial, great results.

At that, in Kansas City, the Executive Committee of the new women organization duly call, “American Legion Auxiliary” said they would decide that at their Annual Meeting on the 20th of January, would I wait until them.  I said Yes, sure they would see the good of the Idea.  Mr. Bolles, the National Adjutant of the American Legion, was quite enthousiatica about it, and He said to all the ladies that the Daisy being the official Flower for the American Legion that had nothing to do with the Poppy being the Memorial Flower anyway. 

I left Kansas City full of hope and went to see how the National Poppy Days were succeeding in my other countries.  It would be too long to give you all the details, my dear Miss Michael, but may I tell you that they have been a great success throughout the British Empire for all the organizations of ex-soldiers to whom I have brought the Idea and sold the poppies. …” 

On 08 November 1921, Moїna Michael wrote to Commandant MacNider of The American Legion – in relation to the Legion’s repudiation of the poppy as its memorial flower.  Adjutant Lemuel Bolles replied in a letter dated 23 November: “My dear Miss Michael:  I am acknowledging receipt of your letter of November 8th addressed to Commander MacNider, and concerning the adoption of the daisy as the official memorial flower of The American Legion for the reason that Mr. MacNider is with the Foch party on its western trip, and I do not know if he has had time to make you a personal reply.

We are very much interested in your letter and the clippings which you have enclosed.  While I am personally delighted with the sentiments expressed in your letter, yet the action of our Convention cannot be changed at this time.  For your information, I am quoting the recommendation of the Ceremonials Committee as it was adopted by the Convention:

“Your Committee has received numerous communications complaining of the poppy as The American Legion flower on the grounds that it is not an American flower; that it is not available for use except in artificial flower.  Very many of these complaints have suggested the American daisy instead of the poppy.  Your Committee recommends the substitution of the daisy for the poppy as the official flower of the American Legion for use in ceremonials.”

I am very glad to know of the services you rendered during the War and of the work you are doing now, and I hope to have the pleasure of writing you a more cheerful letter at a later date.   Sincerely yours, Lemuel Bolles [signed]  LEMUEL BOLLES  National Adjutant”

On 22 December 1921, The Coshocton Tribune (of Ohio) was one newspaper that ran the following paragraph, accompanying an image of Mrs. Mercedes McAllister Smith.  After the “mutiny” earlier in the year, during the American and French/American-Franco Children’s League merger, she was back hitting the headlines suing significant people [sic]:  “Alleging conspiracy on the part of Right Rev. Herbert Shipman, suffragan bishop of the Episcopal diocese of New York, Mme. Anna Guerin and Maurice Leon, representatives of the French government, and others to slander and blacken her reputation by representing her as a notorious French courtesan, Mrs. Marion McAllister Smith, formerly Miss Mercedes Hearn, member of a prominent Texas family, has brought suit against them in New York city.  She asks $200,000 damages.”

On 27 December 1921, ‘The Sacramento Union’ (of California) was one newspaper that ran the following article.  Mrs. Mercedes McAllister Smith was back hitting the headlines again [sic]:

Society Beauty, Ex-Actress, Charges Bishop Slandered Her

NEW YORK, Dec. 26. —Alleging conspiracy on the part of the Rt. Rev. Herbert Shipman, suffragan bishop of the Episcopal diocese of New York, Mme. Anne Guerin and Maurice Leon, representatives of the French government, and others to slander and blacken her reputation by representing her as a notorious French courtesan, Mrs. Marion McAllister Smith, formerly Miss Mercedes Hearne, member of a prominent Texas family, has brought suit against them in the Supreme Court for $200,000 damages.

Mrs. Smith, who is the wife of a son of the late Governor Smith of Rhode lsland and who was on the stage before her marriage under the name of Mercedes Leigh, alleges that Barry Smith told her the French government had reported her to the national bureau of information as the Duchesse de Villanda, said to be a notorious adventuress, who was reported as having been convicted of a crime in 1906.

The rumors were circulated, it is said, after a break in the ranks of the American and French league, of which Mrs. Smith was state chairman in 1920. Disagreement concerning the observance of Poppy day last year is believed to have caused the break. The league was disbanded shortly after and a new organization, the Franco-American league, was formed, including in its membership many of those named in the suit.

 Mrs. Smith states that, as the result of the rumors President Harding withdrew his support to her plan for raising funds for French war orphans and that her work was interfered with in other ways. She declares that her social position has suffered as a result of the alleged slanders. Supporters of Mrs. Smith say that when the case is brought to trial evidence will be introduced that will startle the entire country.”

On 15 January 1922, the Nashville Tennessean newspaper mentioned the American Legion’s Woman’s Auxiliary National Executive Committee meeting in Indianapolis, Ind., 10-22 January and the forthcoming decision to be made about the Poppy Day.  A letter had been sent out to attending delegates and a portion of that communication read: “… If possible, please make a survey of your department in regard to the American Legion Auxiliary taking over the French poppy for our memorial flower and the number of poppies your department can dispose of.  We wish to decide this question at the meeting; and if the majority vote to do so, we will take this as a national work, Madame Guerin is waiting for our decision. …”

Probably now, for the first time in all her fundraising years, Anna Guérin now experienced unresponsive women – she wrote in the February 1922 letter “… My deception was great on the 23rd January to hear that the American Legion Auxiliary had not taken the Idea to sponsor for themselves, the National Poppy Day of the U.S.  So I am just going to ask to another ex-soldiers organization to do it.  All the country will be for us and with us anyway.”

American Legion Daisy Day, 24 February 1922, in the State of Massachusetts. Courtesy of Heather Anne Johnson.

American Legion Daisy Day, 24 February 1922, in the State of Massachusetts. Courtesy of Heather Anne Johnson.

The above edited photograph is dated 24 February 1922.  It is believed to have been taken somewhere in the State of Massachusetts.  Massachusetts is the only state found having a Daisy Day on 24 February 1922.  The American Legion, and its Women’s Auxiliary, held state-wide Daisy Days there on 24 and 25 February.  The Fitchburg Sentinel (of Fitchburg, Massachusetts) reported on both days:

24 February 1922“Today and tomorrow, Feb. 24 and 25, are Daisy days.   Members of the American Legion and Women’s auxiliary will sell daisies throughout the town.  Sixty per cent of the proceeds will go to the local post, and the rest turned over to the state pension for the unemployed and disabled of the World War.  … …  This is a state-wide drive and artificial daisies, the Legion flower, will be sold throughout the town and a house-to-house canvass will he made. … …” 

25 February 1922:  ENTIRE STOCK OF DAISIES SOLD IN DRIVE (By Associated Press.) 

So hearty has been the response of the public to the Daisy drive under the auspices of the American Legion for the benefit of the disabled veterans of the World war since it was started Friday noon that hundreds of people may be out of luck for their boutonnieres today.   The big box of posies which arrived Friday is almost empty and the workers in charge have tried in vain to replenish their stock. 

The novelty of the idea of daisies as a digression from the time-worn tags met with instant endorsement.  Workers devoted the most of their time Friday afternoon to a canvass of the stores, and offices and the renegers were few.  High school girls are on the streets today with their bunches of daisies and their contribution boxes and they are presenting a determined and almost impenetrable line of resistance.  Plans are being made also for a house-to-house canvass so that everyone’s button-hole will be decorated.  It is expected that a stock of daisies will be obtained when Legion headquarters in Boston is able to acquire them.  In the meantime, the contributions have netted a good sum and it is expected that the monetary results will be the best of any drive for the veterans yet held.”

After the American Legion disappointments, Anna Guérin still maintained her commitment to the widows and orphans in the devastated areas of France.  She went to the ‘Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States’ organisation instead.

Recorded in Anna’s Synopsis [sic]: “… as at the Headquarters of the American Legion they had not yet been able to straighten between the Poppy and the Daisy.  I carried the Idea and the POPPIES to the VETERANS OF FOREIGN WAR ‘S ORGANIZATION in New York . A very small and poor organization at that time, and the National Poppy’ Day of 1922 was a great success for the Veterans of Foreign Wars , such a success that their Officers went to Paris with me to deposit a wreath of large Poppies on the Unknown Soldier’s grave under the ARC de TRIOMPHE  .  A banquet was given to them and they received the Legion of Honor, at my table , as the banquet was given by me.”

Ever faithful Isabelle Mack has been found described “regional director and organizer of the Veterans of Foreign Wars” during that 1922 poppy campaign.  It is not known whether Isabelle had a connection with the V.F.W. before the campaign.

A short piece in an article in the Nashville Tennessean (on 7 March 1922) brought up the Poppy Day issue again, when it reported on the American Legion Auxiliary’s first convention in Nashville on 6 March.  It referred to something said by Mrs. L. Hobart, National American Legion Auxiliary President: “She also brought out the fact that the national organization is not sponsoring a national poppy day, although poppy sales have been held by individual auxiliaries.  Mrs. Hobart advised that in the case of any auxiliary cooperating with other bodies in the sale of poppies, the auxiliary communicate first with the national organization. …” 

Presumably, the “other bodies” referred to were the Veterans of Foreign Wars and American War Mothers and, to give one example, some American Legion Auxiliary members did support these “other bodies” – in the Phoenix Poppy Drive.   On 07 May 1922, the Arizona Republican newspaper (Phoenix) printed this article in the lead up to Memorial Day (29 May) [sic]:

V.F.W. WILL HAVE CHARGE OF POPPY SALE IN AMERICA.  The beautiful red poppy, seen in such abundance by thousands of American soldiers in the summer of 1918 along the road sides and in the fields of France, will be seen in equal abundance on Memorial day adorning the coats of men, women and children in America, if plans now being formulated by the Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States for the sale of the flower materialize.           

Interallied Poppy day is now being observed in all of the allied countries, the idea having originated with Madame Guerin, who is known as the “poppy lady of France,” and has for its object the sale of the poppy as a means of raising funds for the assistance of disabled veterans of the war and the care of homeless children of France.  

The selection of the Veterans of Foreign Wars to handle the sale of the poppy in this country is in accordance with the custom of those in charge to name a similar organization in the allied countries for this work each year.  As a result, local members of the V.F.W. are now making arrangements for the distribution of the flower in Phoenix and other cities in the state.   They are being assisted by the Memorial auxiliary if the post together with the auxiliary of the American legion, which will have direct charge of the sales in the city on May 29. 

There is little doubt that the sale of the popular red flower, which has become the symbol of American sacrifice on the battle fields of France, will be greater than it has been in past years.”

Last Funeral of American Dead in World War. 8 April 1922, The News Leader (of Staunton, Virginia).

Last Funeral of American Dead in World War.
8 April 1922, The News Leader (of Staunton, Virginia).

Last Funeral of American Dead in World War. Muffled drum. Half step.  Heads uncovered.  Admiral.  And General.  And thousands of all walks of life.  Thus the last public funeral of an American boy who died in the World War was held in Brooklyn.  The body of Charles W. Graves, Rome, Ga., represented all of the 1065 bodies in the last shipment of American dead from Flanders’ poppy fields.”

On Wednesday 26 April 1922, The Houston Post (of Houston, Texas) printed a statement from the American Legion Auxiliary’s Texas State President.

“Another Organization” reference obviously refers to the Poppy Drive of the Veterans of Foreign Wars but, it seems, she could not bring herself to name it.  She conveniently forgot to mention (although perhaps she was not aware?) that, in some parts of the States, the American Legion would actually be distributing Madame Guérin’s French-made poppies, as Auxiliary members and American veterans could not make enough poppies to meet the demand.  It would not be until 1924 that both the American Legion and VFW would be distributing US-made poppies.

The article’s contents is another piece that substantiates a theory of underlying prejudice; rivalry; and jealousy towards the Veterans of Foreign Wars – which led, eventually, to a distancing from Madame Guérin herself. This probably arose from the American Legion realising it had made a big mistake when it reneged on the poppy emblem at its 1921 Kansas Convention (31 Oct-2 Nov), in favour of the daisy instead.

That decision left the door open for the VFW to take centre stage and become the veteran organisation that arranged the first U.S. state-wide poppy campaign, with Madame Guérin’s French-made poppies. When the Legion adopted the poppy again at its 1922 Convention, it was inevitable that it and the VFW would end up being Poppy Day competitors.  Here is the article [sic]:


Another Organization Granted Memorial  Permit.

Sale of crimson poppies for the hospital fund for ex-service men by the American Legion auxiliary will be held Saturday, April 27, and not on Memorial day, as heretofore, Mrs. E. C. Murray, State president of the auxiliary of Texas, announced Tuesday.  The date has been changed, Mrs. Murray said, for the reason that a permit for Memorial day had already been granted to another organization.

In speaking of the sale of crimson poppies for the benefit of the disabled ex-service men’s hospital fund, and to clear up any misunderstanding that might exist in the minds of the public, Mrs. Murray Tuesday issued the following statement:

“The American Legion, department of Texas, is in no way connected or affiliated with the so-called American-Franco Children’s league or with Mme. E. Guerin or her agents.  The American Legion auxiliary, department of Texas, will not be connected with the poppy sale on Memorial day, April 30, 1922.

“The auxiliary considers the sale of the crimson poppy too sacred a trust to be for any purpose other than the welfare of the disabled ex-service men.

“The American legion auxiliary, department of Texas, will conduct a Statewide sale of the crimson poppies on Saturday, April 27, 1922.  The proceeds of this sale will be used to carry on the work for disabled ex-service men in Texas. No part of this money will go out of the State of Texas.

“We are not forgetful of any of the men who paid the price of service to this State and nation, but the one who needs us most is he who is still paying and who must continue to live the war in hospitals and homes.  He needs our every effort.

“The auxiliary considers the sale of the poppy a fitting opportunity for the rich and poor alike to contribute to this worthy cause.  The purchase of the crimson poppy has a double significance.  The price goes to the welfare and hospital work for the disabled ex-service men, the sentiment keeps alive a grateful memory.

“It is for this we are again asking your generous support.” 

On Sunday 30 April 1922, The Hartford Courant (of Hartford, Conn) alerted readers about the Veterans of Foreign Wars’ Poppy Week and about Madame Guérin’s ‘Inter-Allied Poppy Day’ idea [sic]:


Buying of Flowers Will Aid French Women and War Veterans.

A nation-wide observance of Inter-Allied Poppy Day is planned by the Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States, who have adopted the slogan “A Poppy in Every Button-hole on Memorial Day.”

The Inter-Allied Poppy Day was founded by Madame E. Guerin, known as “The Poppy Lady of France.”  The poppies are made in France by the women of the devastated areas, and will be available only through the posts of the Veterans of Foreign Wars.

Lieutenant Caldwell Colt Robinson Post, No. 254, will assume charge of the work in Hartford and vicinity.  George Bremner of No. 48 Whitmore street has been appointed chairman of the Poppy Day committee.  The local clergy will be asked to designated May 28, as “Poppy Sunday.”

In most cities and states of the union mayors and governors are being asked to name May 22 to 29 as “Poppy Week.”

The sale of the poppies will not only provide needed assistance to many French women, but will also further relief needed by disabled veterans of the World War.”

On 09 May 1922, the Pittston Gazette ran a short piece headed “WEAR FLANDERS POPPIES FOR HEROES OF ALL WARS. Buy and wear a poppy on Memorial Day, thus honouring our soldier dead by helping the living, in other words, help the boys who helped you.  Such is the patriotic and practical purpose the Veterans of Foreign Wars have in view in arranging for the sale of the Flanders poppy to be worn on Memorial Day, not only memory of the soldier dead from the late world war, but also from all the wars in which our country has participated.

The Flanders poppies are available in the country through the co-operation of Mme. Guerin, whose title “The Poppy Lady of France”, has been copyrighted and under which copyright the V.F.W. will operate.”  

V.F.W. medallion.

V.F.W. medallion.

Also on Tuesday 9 May 1922, The Fall River Globe (of Fall River, Mass) wrote about the Veterans of Foreign Wars’ Poppy Day; Madame Guérin; and poppies [sic]:

MAY 27, 29 AND 30 TO BE ‘POPPY DAYS’. Veterans of Foreign Wars Have the Endorsement of President Harding and Permission of Local Authorities for Campaign.

The Veterans of Foreign Wars, Private Joseph Francis Post, No. 486, this city, will open a Flanders poppy campaign to take place on the 27th, 29th and 30th of May, when Silk Poppies made by the War Mothers of France, will be sold on the street and at places of amusement by the aid of auxiliaries and assistants, the proceeds to be used for the relief of former service men and their families.

The veterans plan to make these three days “glorified” sorts of Tag days, having an appeal all their own among Tag Day functions.  Before being sold here, the Silken Poppies will be purchased by the Veterans of Foreign Wars at 4½ cents each. Four cents on each poppy will go to the support of the homeless women of the devastated districts of France, who made the flowers.  The remaining half cent will be used by national headquarters of Veterans of Foreign Wars, toward the expenses of the service officer in each district of the Veterans Bureau.

Permission for Poppy Day has been obtained from the mayor and chief of police, and is a country wide movement, directed by the Veterans of Foreign Wars and sponsored by the War Mothers and sponsored by the War Mothers.  It has the hearty endorsement of President Harding as below:

“I find myself heartily in sympathy with the purpose of the Veterans of Foreign Wars and the American War Mothers, in their request that the people at large shall wear on Memorial Day a poppy, the Inter-Allied memorial flower.

It is a most appropriate mode of testifying our remembrance and recognition of the great obligation of the nation to those who gave everything in the service during the World War.

I trust that the suggestion you have presented will be generally adopted throughout the nation.


The poppies are obtained through Mme Anne E. Guerin, “The Poppy Lady of France,” under whose copyright the Veterans of Foreign Wars will operate. Like the original Flanders poppies made famous during the war, blossoming in the devastated spots where no other flower grew, the Tag Day poppies are blood red, symbolical of the sacrifices on the battlefields of the World War.

Taggers for the day will be furnished by the Auxiliary and friends and the taggers will visit the athletic fields and other places of interest that will be open on those days.

The poppy has already found favor as a memorial flower in England, France, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Cuba.  Sentiment favouring it as an international flower is rapidly spreading.

Among numerous organizations which have adopted or recognized the flower as a memorial flower are the following: Daughters of the Revolution, Sons of the G. A. R., Daughters of the Sons of G. A. R., Ladies Auxiliaries of the G. A. R., Women’s Relief Corps, British Legion of England, Disabled Soldiers Association of Quebec, Great War Veterans’ Association of Canada, Returned Soldiers and Sailors Imperial League of Australia and New Zealand and in Cuba by the National Poppy Day Committee.

The members and Memorial Day committees of the Private Joseph Francis Post, No. 486, Veterans of Foreign Wars sincerely ask the kind assistance and co-operation of the public in making “Poppy Day” in Fall River a success.”

On 11 May 1922, Anna’s friend Blanche Berneron addressed the Annual State Convention of the Veterans of Foreign Wars in Richmond, Indiana.  The next day, Indiana’s South Bend News-Times reproduced the speech Blanche had given: “It is as President Harding says in his letter “an appropriate way of testifying every remembrance and recognition, of the great obligation of the nation, to those who gave everything in the service, during the great war.

“It also is such a beautiful sentiment.   It is like a message coming from Flanders Fields, where 36,000 boys are still sleeping and warning us ‘not to forget’.    They are the dead, but from their falling hands they have thrown us the torch.  We shall hold it high.   If we break faith with those who died, they could not sleep though poppies grow in Flanders Field. 

“Those poppies of red silk, replica of the real flower, are made by children, mostly orphans, crippled, disabled soldiers and particularly by all the needy on account of the war – they are made at the very places where the boys fought and won and where yet so many sleep.

“The cost price of each poppy goes to France for the making and expenses of shipping and all the proceeds derived from Poppy Day are to remain here in America to help all relief funds of ex-servicemen.  We shall in wearing the poppy honor the dead by helping the living. 

“The wearing of the Inter-Allied Poppy will link closer together the affection of the two countries – France and America, who were both ready to give until the last one for the same cause. 

“Let us establish the inter-allied poppy day for years to come. It is the nation’s opportunity to show its gratitude to the men who brought glory to their flag.  Anything we can do, we shall always be in debt to those sleeping in Flanders Field.”

The American Legion held Daisy Days during May.   For example, Nebraska’s Alliance Herald (Box Butte County 23 May 1922) reported: “The Ellen Dodge legion Auxiliary will call May 27 and 29 Daisy Day this year. On these days the ladies will sell daisies at ten cents each. The proceeds from this sale will be used to buy the local post of the American Legion a flag.

Daisy Day was called Poppy Day last year and red silk poppies in remembrance of Flanders’ Field poppies were sold. This year the Legion’s flower has been changed to the daisy for various reasons. It was discovered that several firms were commercializing the poppy for money reasons, and it was also discovered that the poppy spread so rapidly when planted that it was feared it might soon become an obnoxious weed instead of a rare and lovely flower full of memories for all who had relatives in the great world war.

Mrs. E .R. Harris of the local post has charge of the Daisy Day and it is planned to have various women on the streets with these little flowers on the two days mentioned. The daisies are supposed to be worn Decoration Day in honor of the dead heroes.”   

In Anna Guérin’s February letter (aforementioned), she wrote: “… as quickly the Campaign’ s plans are in the hands of an organization I shall leave for France to push the making of the poppies as I am afraid we shall not have enough, this year, they are to be so pretty !”  Anna’s sister Juliette was to “be left in charge at the Headquarters of the organization to help them.”

Madame Guérin may have left New York on 20 May 1922, on board the White Star Line ship ‘S.S. Majestic’ – bound for Cherbourg, France: accompanied by high-ranking members of the ‘Veterans of Foreign Wars’.   The V.F.W. men were heading for Paris, to attend the Memorial Day ceremony – and Anna Guérin did attend this ceremony with them.   However, she may have departed New York during the last week of March 1922: one “Anna Guerin” arrived in Southampton on 02 April, on the ship White Star Line ship ‘Homeric’. The lady was heading for the Hotel Victoria in London.

Veterans of Foreign Wars’ Adjutant General Reuel W. Elton & Robert S. Cain (aide de camp) about to set sail for France, on 20 May 1922. (New Castle Herald, New Castle, Penns., 26 May 1922).

Veterans of Foreign Wars’ Adjutant General Reuel W. Elton & Robert S. Cain (aide de camp) about to set sail for France, on 20 May 1922. (New Castle Herald, Penns., 26 May 1922).

Various US newspapers enlightened their readers about that aforementioned visit to Paris at the end of May 1922.   They all printed a photograph of the Veterans of Foreign Wars’ Adjutant General Reuel W, Elton and Robert S. Cain (aide de camp to V.F.W. Commander-in-Chief Robert G. Woodside), as they stood on deck, before sailing.   Apparently, V.F.W. Commander-in-Chief Woodside was also on board.

The article transcribed below accompanied the above image in The New Castle Herald newspaper (Pennsylvania) – it demonstrates the eminent position held by the ‘Veterans of Foreign Wars’ organisation:


Adjutant General Reuel W. Elton, of the Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States and Robert S. Cain, aide de camp to Robert G. Woodside, the Commander-in-Chief of the organization, sailed May 20th on the new giant liner, Majestic, to represent the United States Veteran bodies at a unique ceremony in Paris on Memorial Day,– the laying of a wreath of scarlet poppies as the tribute of America at the tomb of the Unknown “Poilu” at the Arc de Triomphe. 

The V.F.W. post in Paris, Benjamin Franklin Post, has charge of the Paris ceremonies, at which Marshal Foch, Ambassador Herrick, and representatives of the French and British military organizations will be present.

Adjutant General Elton and his aide took with them the four-foot wreath of silken poppies which is to adorn the Unknown Poilu’s grave.  The wreath is an exact replica of the wreaths which the Veterans of Foreign Wars will place at the tomb of the Unknown Soldier in the National Cemetery at Arlington and at the Soldiers and Sailors Monument on Riverside Drive. 

Scores of similar wreaths will be used by local posts of the V.F.W. at the Memorial Day services throughout the country.

The V.F.W. delegation sails at the special invitation of the French veterans’ organizations, L’Union Nationale des Combattants, which will join in the Memorial Day service at Paris.  Representatives of the French Legion, British Legion, American Legion, American Women’s Club, and Franco-American Children’s League will also attend the ceremony, a feature of which will be the insignia of the V.F.W. upon the Unknown Poilu and its acceptance by Marshal Foch on behalf of the French Government. 

The picture shows the two American soldiers with the wreath which they exhibited at the ship’s rail as the final good-byes were said from the pier.  The Veterans of Foreign Wars are actively promoting the “Poppy Week” phase in connection with the observance of Memorial Day in 44 states throughout the country, all the proceeds of the movement to be used for the relief of disabled ex-service men.”

On 21 May 1922, the Sacramento Union newspaper ran this very informative article ahead of the 1922 Poppy campaign [sic]:


Robert W. Service, “the Kipling of the North,” in his “Rhymes of a Red Cross Man” made light of the idea that a soldier might care for flowers. Perhaps he was right; yet the entire sentiment that was four years ago—has been crystalized into a single flower, the Flanders poppy. Those who put a shoulder to the wheel when the German military machine was rolled back across the devastated areas of France and Belgium will never forget the crimson battle token.

Wherever veterans gather there will be talk of the old days and, before the group separates, someone is sure to say, “And remember the poppies! Funny how these things would grow there, sometimes right in the shell holes. They were kinda pretty too. The kids used to put em on the graves.”

 “Yeah,” interrupts another, “back in the rest areas the women used to make wreaths out of ’em on the cross arms on Sundays. Used to look kinda solemn like to see those red flowers hanging- there.”   

Solemn is the word. Plain, unornamented crosses and on the arm a wreath of red flowers seeming to symbolize the blood the grave occupant had shed for humanity. That is why the men of the American Expeditionary Forces will always love the poppy. It was used as a floral tribute to their fallen comrades and, when the barrage ceased and the ragged line moved out, those who composed that line, invariably advanced through a field dotted with the frail flowers.

Poppies, poppies everywhere, seeming to warn the soldier that death in all his grim, hideousness walked very near. Because of the sacrifices and glory which the flower represents in fighting men’s eyes it has been adopted as an inter-allied memorial flower and Poppy Day campaigns have been conducted throughout the allied nations. The campaign in America will be conducted by the Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States, an organization composed of men who have seen battle service In the United States army, navy, marine corps in foreign lands and on foreign waters.

The campaign is well under way. The American War Mothers are cooperating with the Veterans of Foreign Wars in the work.  

Of particular Interest is the announcement from national headquarters of the Veterans of Foreign Wars in Now York that the poppies to be used will come direct from France.  

They are perfect reproductions of the flower that decorates the American graves in Romange and are fashioned of silk by the women of the devasted area in France. The money paid for them by the Veterans of Foreign Wars is used in assiting the women who make them to rehabilitate themselves.

The profit derived by the local posts of the Veterans of Foreign Wars will be used in veteran relief work. Very few realize the tremendous task thrust upon the veteran organization of America. They are attempting to care for those who have been wounded or otherwise incapacitated because of the war and the financial outlay necessary to maintain this service is almost unbelievable.  

Ever since the organization of the Veterans of Foreign Wars, 22 years ago, direct liaison with government pension bureaus, claims courts and the military departments has always been maintained and thousands of cases have been righted. That the government appreciates this service is proven by the praise of Colonel Forbes, director of the United States Veteran’s bureau.

It is the most worthy work Imaginable but to be carried on funds must be obtained. Hence the Poppy Campaign. For a week prior to Memorial Day the Veterans of Foreign Wars will endeavor to sell poppies so that every man, woman and child will be wearing one of the Flanders hero symbols on Decoration Day.  

Plans for a Poppy Sunday will he made and every clergyman will be asked to devote at least three minutes of his sermonizing time to the poppy and the idea which made it an international memorial flower. The school children will be asked to aid as will every military, patriotic and civic organization. The funds realized are not to be used for a club house, or a new post flag or a piano, they will be expended in the Interests of disabled or needy former fighting men than which is no worthier cause.  

President Harding has given most hearty endorsement to the project and urges every American to wear a Flanders poppy on May 30. His letter to Captain Reuel W. Elton, adjutant general of the Veterans of Foreign Wars, is as follows;  

“I find myself heartly in sympathy with the purpose of the Veterans of Foreign Wars and the American War Mothers, in their request that the people at large shall wear on Memorial Day, a poppy, the inter-allied memorial flower. It is a moat appropriate mode of testifying our remembrance and recognition of the great obligation of the nation to those who gave everything In the service during the World War.  

“I trust that the suggestion you j have presented will be generally adopted throughout the nation.”

BRIDGEPORT, Conn. John H. Williams, city treasurer and commander of department of Connecticut, V. F. W., is planning to have every person in Connecticut wear a poppy on Memorial Day. For a week prior to May 30 the V. F. W. will conduct a poppy campaign, the funds derived therefrom to be used In maintaining service bureaus for the use of former fighting men. Commander Williams’ department is one of the most active in this work. He has already arranged for a Poppy Sunday and will ask the school children to assist in the sale of the silk flowers which are made In France by the women of the devastated areas.  

BOSTON, Mass.—State commander John Mac Donald of the Department of Massachusetts, Veterans of Foreign Wars is personally directing the V. P. W. poppy campaign in his state. Commander Mac Donald Is very anxious to have every person in the state wear one of the battle tokens on Memorial Day. Poppy committees have already been formed in many cities and towns throughout Masschusetts.  

NEW YORK, N. Y.—National headquarters of the Veterans of Foreign Wars will open the poppy campaign to be conducted by the organizatlon with a “bombing flight” over Broadway.  A plane driven by Major. C. Alexander Wright of the New York police department flying section will fly as low as possible over the White Way while Captain Reuel W. Elton, adjutant general of the Veterans of Foreign Wars will drop literature explaining the poppy campaign. President Harding has given the campaign hearty endorsement and urges every American to do his share.”

Together with the ‘American War Mothers’, the ‘Veterans of Foreign Wars’ held their first Poppy Week 22 and 30 May inclusive  – 30 May being Memorial Day.   Ahead of that ‘drive’, newspapers such as Connecticut’s ‘Norwich Bulletin’ (May 19, 1922) reported that the 28 May was designated the “national Poppy day” and the “founder of Poppy day is Madame E. Guerin, known as “the poppy lady of France.”    The money raised from the sale of poppies will go to the widows and orphans of devastated France.”    However, it was reported in the Atlanta Constitution (28 May 1922) “… Funds raised from the sale of the poppies will be used to help alleviate distress among deserving disabled veterans of the world war … a permanent committee of prominent Atlantans will investigate all applications from ex-service men …” 

“POPPY DRIVE.—This parade of veterans yesterday opened Brooklyn’s Poppy Drive, the proceeds of which will go to welfare work of ex-service organizations.” The Daily News (of New York), 26 May 1922.

POPPY DRIVE.—This parade of veterans yesterday opened Brooklyn’s Poppy Drive,
the proceeds of which will go to welfare work of ex-service organizations.”
The Daily News (of New York), 26 May 1922.

The image shown below, promoting the Guérin ‘Inter-Allied Poppy Day/Week, has also been discovered in The Oshkosh Northwestern (of Oshkosh, Wisconsin) on 25 May 1922 and The Palladium Item (of Richmond, Indiana) on 26 May 1922 – with slightly differing text.

Poppy Lady Madame Guérin’s ‘Inter-Allied Poppy Day’ idea became a week. ‘Tampa Bay Times’, Florida. 30 May 1922.

Poppy Lady Madame Guérin’s ‘Inter-Allied Poppy Day’ idea became a week.
‘Tampa Bay Times’, Florida. 30 May 1922.

In Tampa, Florida, Poppy Lady Madame Guérin’s ‘Inter-Allied Poppy Day’ idea was a “week” in 1922 [sic]:

Inter-allied Poppy Week—May 22 to 29—will be celebrated in England, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Cuba as well as the United States.  President Harding has indorsed the suggestion that the people at large wear poppies on Memorial Day.  The object of the celebration is to inaugurate a custom to cherish the memory of the dead in the world war.  Veterans of Foreign Wars will conduct a sale of Flanders poppies, the funds derived to help the women of France and for local posts to meet unemployment conditions for the service bureau of the veterans’ organization.” (‘Tampa Bay Times’, Florida. 30 May 1922).

“BURY U.S. SOLDIERS IN “OLD SOD”. Transport at Irish port unloads bodies of American soldier dead of Irish origin who will be buried in Ireland in accordance with parents’ wishes.” The Missoulian, Missoula, Montana. 26 May 1922.

Transport at Irish port unloads bodies of American soldier dead of Irish
origin who will be buried in Ireland in accordance with parents’ wishes.”
The Missoulian, Missoula, Montana. 26 May 1922.

On Saturday 27 May 1922, The Miami Herald (Miami, Florida) described the Guérin poppies that The Veterans of Foreign Wars would be distributing [sic]:

“The poppy which will be sold in Miami by the Bryan Padgett post, No. 471, Veterans of Foreign Wars, and the Ladies’ Auxiliary, is a replica of the same flower growing upon American graves in Romagne,  Thousands of the poppies were received Thursday by the post and will b on sale today, Monday and Tuesday.  The sale of these poppies will enable the post in Miami to give much assistance to comrades who are in need, and to the war widows and orphans in France.  These poppies were made in France by the war widows and bear the inscriptions, “The Poppy Lady of France,” and “In Memoriam.”

The ‘Veterans of Foreign Wars’ was the first American veterans’ organisation to hold a National Poppy Drive in the United States.   This was the second nationwide Drive in the USA, the first having been held/organised by the ‘American-Franco Children’s League’ on 28 May 1921.  The V.F.W. decided to adopt the poppy as its own official memorial flower.  

The American Legion’s association with the daisy caused much confusion among members of the public and it was noticed.  On 24 August 1922, The Red Cloud Chief (Nebraska) reported on the confusion circulating after the American Legion made the daisy decision:

THE FLOWERS OF THE LEGION. American Daisy and French Poppy Official Posies of Both Branches of the Organization.  There has been some confusion in the minds of Americans in general as to the status of the daisy and the poppy in connection with the American Legion and the American Legion Auxiliary.

The daisy is the Legion’s official flower; the poppy is the Auxiliary’s memorial flower. The misunderstanding arose in the first place, because in its early days the Legion did adopt the poppy of France as its flower.  But at its Kansas City convention the American Legion adopted the daisy as its official flower on the grounds that the daisy is an American flower and the poppy of Flanders is available for use only in artificial form. 

The Legion Auxiliary has taken advantage of the very fact that the poppy is not available as a real flower to buy artificial flowers made by disabled soldiers in hospitals. The Massachusetts Legion and Auxiliary netted something over $46,000 from the sale of artificial poppies last winter.  This money was used to better the conditions of sick and needy veterans of the World war. 

The Legion is making every effort to interest the children of America in the cultivation of flowers by appealing to their patriotism and to their natural affection for such a flower as the American Legion’s American daisy.”

The American Legion made a U-turn and adopted the poppy as its official flower again at its convention in October 1922 – in line with its Auxiliary.

Anna wrote in her 1941 Synopsis [sic]: “In fact of this success of the VETERANS OF THE FOREIGN WARS at the next Convention of the American Legion the Flanders ‘ field’S Poppy was readopted and the American Legion asked to me to have 2 millions of silk Poppies made in France for them . What I did , I brought them in March 1923 , but already the Flanders ‘ Poppies had been commercialised [in the U.S.A.) and it is why the NATIONAL POPPIES ‘ DAYS have never had the tremendous success that they have had in the ENGLISH EMPIRE.”

It has been found reported, in other accounts, that Madame Guérin’s American-Franco Children’s League was dissolved “early in 1922”.  However, I think this may be inaccurate because one of the League officers in France, Madame André Lebon, has been found still communicating in her role, in November 1923.  Additionally, Anna Guérin continued to be linked to the Australian and New Zealand Poppy Days for years to come.

It is deduced that the following transcribed report was created mid-1922: after monies had filtered through from the sales of Guerin/American-Franco Children’s League French-made poppies, held during World War One Allied nations’ Inter-Allied Poppy Days. Its content is very informative and documents many causes that Anna Guérin’s Children’s League helped:




Comité Directeur : 35, Rue Boissy-d’Anglas, PARIS—Tél. : Élysées 43-16

Président d’Honneur : Madame MILLERAND

Président : Madame André LEBON : Vice Président : Madame du VIVIER de STREEL

Secrétaire Général : Madame Roger SCIAMA

Trésorier : Général LEGRAND-GIRARDE



            In December 1919, the “Ligue Américaine-Française des Enfants” received the first gift which the “American-Franco Children’s League” was able to send them in aid of the children of the Devastated Regions.

            The State of Delaware, “Diamond State”, that had been first in War Work, proud to be the first to set the example, sent Frs. 9.600.

            Soon after words, example was followed by South Dakota, Colorado, Maryland, Wyoming, Utah, Minnesota, Nebraska, Kansas, Illinois, California, Pennsylvania and the State of Washington.

            The Committee of the League, formed in Paris in November 1919, under the presidency of Madame Alexandre Millerand, who in 1921 became Honorary President had but one thought:—

                  a) — to be certain that the money sent by our friends was employed solely for the needs of the children in the Devastated District :

                  b) — to assist the needy with the utmost speed as gifts arrived.  

            From 1919 to 1922 the League received Frs. 636.430 from the United States.

            In 1922 Canada, England and Australia added their gifts to those of our American friends, by deducting large sums from the amounts received for the poppies sold by Veterans on the Anniversary of the Armistice for the benefit or their own War Institutions.  In all, the League has received 1.279.373 Frs. 55.

            These gifts, generally received in the form of cheques or transfers, have been deposited with the “Crédit Foncier d’Algérie et de Tunisie”.  Payments to the beneficiaries were made in the same way.

            The Committee has therefore merely been an organ for receiving and distributing the gifts.  Every request or proposal is examined at a Committee Meeting which grants credit in exchange for documents proving the use to which the money was put (invoices, certificates of time spent in hospital, etc.)  No other use has ever been made of funds received.  No Member of the Committee receives any salary or indemnity for his or her services.

            Office expenses, paper, stamps, cables, etc., are more than covered by the interest received on funds deposited with the Bank.

            The Committee sought out, in each Department which had suffered the ravages of war, the Societies which devote themselves to helping children, and persons offering every desirable guarantee who work for the same object, and offered or granted them allowances as nearly as nearly as possible in proportion to their needs.

            The Committee has made it a fixed rule of granting help that every Society or individual helper shall supply proof of how the money received is spent, so as to be sure that it really reaches those for whom it was destined by the generous givers.

            The Committee has periodically examined the state of these funds and at the end of each year, in 1920, 1921, and 1922, has made out a statement of the sums received and distributed.  These statements have been submitted to an Auditor for examination and it is on his report that the Committee has each year approved the accounts submitted.

            It must also be said that the Committee has endeavoured, as far as possible to extend help to each one of the devastated districts ; that no preference has been shown for any social class, and that its sole aim has been to aid the children of the devastated regions by all possible means.

            The first aim, which had the prior attention of the Committee, was to save the very lives of the children and give them means of existence.  These children were suffering cruelly from the harsh conditions imposed on them by the presence of the enemy during four years.  To this was added the suffering resulting from the all houses, partially on entirely in ruines, which obliged the inhabitants returning to the devastated regions, or who had never left them, to live in conditions which were too often unhealthy.  One must have visited the precarious shelters where our populations have been obliged to take refuge and where so many still live, to understand that children dwelling under conditions so miserable offer an easy prey to disease.

            If these poor mites, who lived through the War, the invasion, and last saw the Victory of the allied armies, have had to suffer the most cruel trials, menacing their very existence, it is indeniable that the future of the race has been endangered, and that it is our duty to aid those whose who are being born to day and whose parents have had their health injured through the privations imposed by the Enemy.

            Bearing this in mind, the Committee directed its principal efforts towards helping the institutions which give extra nourishment and comforts to weakly children, place the sick or feeble under sanitary conditions capable of restoring their health and strength, give to those who during the greater part of the year live in unhealthy surroundings a few weeks’ change at the seaside or in the mountains.

            The Committee did not neglect the three Societies forming the French Red Cross which have opened dispensaries in the Devastated districts, giving intelligent care, and the medicine and sanitary and preventive supervision, which they so often lack.

            At Christmastime the Committee has also distributed clothing and even toys.

            In other places it has assisted in the formation of sanitary services in the schools which not only preserve the children from certain contaminations, but which also help to spread habits of daily cleanliness among the country populations.

            Again, their help went towards buying and keeping milch-cows, at a time when livestock was still lacking and prices too high for the inhabitants ruined by the war ; in this way it was possible to provide for the children the food most suitable for their age.

            The best way in which the Ligue Américaine-Française des Enfants can express their thanks to their friends, so generous and so untiring in their efforts, is to place before them the wonderful work which has been done through their kindness.

            We give below a few details concerning the principal institutions which have received grants from the American-Franco Children’s League and a list of those which have received various contributions.



            First among the Institutions receiving grants from the Committee we must place the “Maurice-Pierre” Home at Bidart managed and supported by the present President of the Committee, Madame André Lebon.

            In 1918, Mrs. Fisher, of Nebraska, opened a Home at Bidart, between Biarritz, and Saint-Jean-de-Luz, where a few children from Paris could find refuge from bombardment.  The War over, Madame André Lebon took over the installation, greatly improved it and devoted the little Basque house to the weakly children of the devastated regions.  A year later, subscriptions from America, especially those from Nebraska and Pueblo Colorado, which the giver intended chiefly for the “Maurice-Pierre” Home, brought precious help to the Institution.        

            The Sanatorium holds 35 beds for delicate children from the Devastated Regions and is open all the year round.  

            Little girls aged from six to fourteen and little boys of from six to ten, live there in a homelike atmosphere.  The splendid climate enables the visitors at “Maurice-Pierre” to lead an almost exclusively out-door life.  The children do their rhythmic breathing exercises on the extensive beach.  In the garden of “Maurice-Pierre” they take the sun-baths which do so much to strengthen the children under our care.

            An exceptional primary Teacher, from the North, who has also lived through the Invasion, is entrusted with their education.  Their stay varies from four months, at the least, to a year or more.  The little boarders learn good habits of voluntary discipline, receive a good education, and have at the time their shattered health restored.

            The results obtained all excellent are in some instances marvellous.  These children brought from unhealthy homes to a pure atmosphere, to light, fresh air, and well fed, under the supervision of devoted nurses, benefit at once by the happy change.

            From the 5th June 1919 to the 1st November 1922 the Home has afforded a roof to 255 children, who have benefited during 31.826 days of Maurice Pierre’s shelter.  182 of whom came from the Departments of the North and 37 from those of the East.

            Two inscriptions on the pillars of the porch daily remind the children of the help given them by Nebraska and Pueblo Colorado through the “Maurice-Pierre” Home, thus keeping alive in their hearts the gratitude they owe to their Benefactors in America.



The Aisne Open-Air School — Saint-Quentin

            Opened in August 1921, thanks to the generous help of the American-Franco Children’s League, the outdoor school of the Aisne was established with the following aim : —

            To shelter temporarily, under the best sanitary conditions, those children of the Department who were too delicate to live with their families very often lacking the merest necessaries of existence ; to keep them as long as their state of health required, giving them the needful treatment, good and plentiful food, and calm and regular life, while allowing them to continue their studies.

            The Henri Lange Home was fortunate enough to be able to settle 3 kilometers from Saint-Quentin, on a high plateau.  A fine hospital-hut was placed at its disposal by the Ministére des Regions Liberées.  A kitchen-garden, an orchard and a poultry-yard supply the wants of the pupils.  The House is lit by electricity, has central-heating and has shower-baths.  A hut has been turned into a well-ventilated class-room where a Teacher, sent by the Government, the children gives instruction when the weather is too bad for them to remain out of doors.

            The founders of the school intended it for 25 children, but it soon had to be enlarged, as requests for admission were received from all parts of the District, through the Dispensary Doctors who were highly satisfied with the results obtained.  To day the School shelters 60 boarders whose ages range from 4 to 13.

            Each one of those little ones knows that it is thanks to our American friends that they enjoy hours which will ever remain the brightest memories of their childhood.



            The Preventorium at Valloire, installed in the ancient and celebrated Abbey of Valloire, is situation on the Somme, 20 kilometers from the Channel coast, in the midst of a large agricultural estate.       At present, awaiting enlargement to make room for 250 beds, the Preventorium receives 50 children, boys and girls, aged from 3 to 9.  Each child over six

Receives primary instruction from one of the Teachers of the Establishment.  From April to October the classes are held either in the woods surrounding the Abbey or in the covered galleries of the cloisters.  Classes alternating with physical exercises, singing and gardening which are a part of the “open-air school”.

            A Dormitory containing 10 beds, opened thanks to the generosity of Australians, is named “Australia Dormitory”.

            The Preventorium is managed by Mademoiselle Papillon, Chevalier de la Légion d’Honneur, Croix de Guerre, who, after devoting her whole time to War work, to the tending of the Somme, devotes her life to the children of France so that they may regain health and strength.  She is about to obtain for them the celebrated Abbey of Valloire which contains wonderful artistic treasures.



            At Roye, on the Somme, our Committee has helped the “Secours d’Urgence” to establish a Lying-in Hospital in the huts, in the midst of the ruins, where however the inhabitants have nevertheless returned in large numbers.

            The confinement room, which is called “Delaware Ward” and which will be transferred to the permanent Lying-in Hospital soon to be finished, received more than 70 women in 1922 ; this shows how necessary the lying-in hospital was for the hapless women who would otherwise have had their babies born in actual hovels, deprived not only of all comfort, but also of any possibility of sanitary treatment.

            This Lying-in Hospital, set up very simply, includes : dormitory where women living at a distance await their hour of trial, a confinement room with all surgical instruments and dressings, a dormitory of 6 beds with little cradles, well-lighted and aired, and scrupulously clean.  A Doctor and a midwife come each day and at night if necessary ; a nurse is there day and night looking after mothers and babies.

            A consulting-room for expectant mothers and a dispensary for infants are annexed to the Lying-in hospital.



Under the superintendence of Mademoiselle Fouriaux, Chevalier de la Légion d’Honneur.

            The School is installed on a very beautiful estate of 6 hectares.  The aim of the school is to help delicate and convalescent children to regain their health and strength.

            Life in the open air, plenty of good substantial food, physical exercise according to the best methods known house-work, easy gardening for boys and needle-work for girls, these are what the Open-Air School offers to the children of Reims.

            Their stay lasts from two to three months, according to the state of their health.

            Since opening, the School has received 1.345 children, 350 of whom have benefited, during 22.500 days, by the generous assistance of the American-Franco Children’s League.

            The results obtained are excellent : all the children have gained enormously from their stay ; their health is greatly improved, their weight has systematically increased.

            They are taught good manners, cleanliness as a habit, all this will contribute to the development of their character.

            On wing has been named after President Harding, another after the American-Franco Children’s League.


“DROP OF MILK” (Goutte de Lait) at Bray-sur-Somme

            At Bray-sur-Somme a greatly devoted nurse, Mademoiselle Marais d’Arc*, is giving up her life to helping the little ones.

            Camping in a house still in ruins, at Bray, she receives all the mothers with their Babies, gives good advice, looks after the infants, providing each one with the food it needs, happy when, at the end of the week, she can register an increase in weight.

            Off she sets, by almost impossible roads, to visit 19 surrounding villages (Cappy, Méricourt, Suzanne, Sailly, etc, etc, etc.)

            Numberless are the babies who owe their lives to her.

[*Nurse Louise Marais d’Arc: a nursing home at Bray-sur-Somme bears her name today.]



At the beginning of 1920, Verdun still entirely lacked milk.  An American lady, Miss Butler*, President of the Vassar Unit, tried to organise cow-houses.

            The American-Franco Children’s League was glad to be able to buy her a few extra cows ; this helps was very much appreciated by Miss Butler . . . . . . and the children.

[*Miss Elsa Butler directed work at the Vassar Relief Unit for two years (American Red Cross). “After the Armistice … the Vassar Unit, which merged itself with a French committee charged with the care of returning refugees of Verdun. …”]



            An infants’ home, beautifully furnished, was opened thanks to American gifts presented to the town of Saint-Mihiel and also with the help of the American-Franco Children’s League.

            This Home, attached to which is a “Drop of Milk” institution, has already saved the lives of a great number of Babies.



            We think the best way of showing the good work accomplished, thanks to the Americans, is to give an extract from a letter received from Sister Gabrielle*, a devoted woman who lives at Clermont-en-Argonne in the midst of ruins, trying to help the unfortunate, comfort the sad and bring laughter to the little ones :

                        “Dear General,

                                                           The ten cradles and the ten sets of baby linen have

                        “arrived.  Many thanks.  Blessings from myself as well as from my dear

                        “kiddies for whom your kindness means maternal Providence.  We all wish

                        “the Treasurer who so graciously pays our debts all the happiness he can

                        “wish for.”

                         Sister Gabrielle, Chevalier de la Légion d’Honneur (civil and military)

[*Sister Gabrielle Rosnet ran the Hospice at Clermont-en-Argonne.  There, during the War, she nursed wounded soldiers from the Eastern Front.  After the War, amongst the ruins, she strived to help everyone she could.  Source: ‘World War I and America: Told By the Americans Who Lived It’ (LOA #289). Edited by A. Scott Berg]



            Desirous of collaborating in the splendid work of reconstruction started by M. Charbonnaux, from which has sprung a veritable city ; the “Foyer Rémois”—the American-Franco Children’s League gave a large grant, enabling a “Drop of Milk” Institution for the Babies of this model city to be started.



            Lassigny is beginning to rise out of its ashes.  Although the majority of its inhabitants still live in huts, schools have been built and are well attended.

            The American-Franco Children’s League has just  given Lassigny an important sum in order that bath-rooms and shower-baths may be installed.  The children will thus get used to habits of cleanliness and it will be possible to give them the treatment required by their delicate health : so many of these little ones have already suffered so much.


COW-Houses at Senones.

            In 1920 at Senones (Vosges) a serious shortage of milk caused the death of many babies.  A nurse belonging to the “Union des Femmes de France” (“Frenchwomen’s League”) Madame Fragassi, asked the American-Franco Children’s League, in April, to give her enough to buy a cow. Good results were so quickly obtained that in July the League increased her herd and soon after, a big cow-house was built at Senones and named after the American-Franco Children’s League, in which ten beautiful and healthy milch-cows could be seen.



            The Etaples Preventorium was opened quitw recently.  The number of beds is at present 50 but this number can be increased to 75 or 80.

            The Preventorium has the benefit of sea air and the precious emanations of the pine-woods.



            The Rest Home at Mautort-Abbeville was founded by a kind and devoted lady : Mrs. Athusen, who had opened a hospital at Céret during the War and a Convalescent Home at Grenoble.  The War over, she opened at Mautort, near Abbeville, a Rest Home for sickly and delicate children.



Dispensaries : — 

Association des Dames Françaises (French Ladies’ Association).

           Fargnier (Aisne).

           Fourmies (Nord).

           Sedan (Ardennes).

Société de Secours aux Blessés Militaires (Wounded Soldiers’ Aid Society).

           Nancy (Meurthe-et-Moselle).


Union des Femmes de France (Frenchwomen’s Union).

            La Bassée (Nord).

            Etival (Vosges).

            Montescourt (Aisne).

            Hénin-Lietard — Arras (Pas-de-Calais).

            Saint-Quentin. — superintended by the much regretted Madame François Hugues,                                  Chevalier de la Legion d’Honneur.

Institutions for Infants :—

Drop of Milk” at :—

            Verdun — Saint Mihiel —Commercy (Meuse).

            Sedan (Ardennes).

            Acy (Aisne) — Œuvre des Villages Libérés —(Work among the liberated villages).

            Bray-sur-Somme — Rozière-en-Santerre (Somme).

            Senones (Vosges).

            Saint-Quentin (Aisne) : Nouvell Etoile.

            Reims “Drop of Milk” of the “Foyer Rémois”.

            Roye Lying-in Hospital.

            Société d’Assistance Maternelle et Pouponnière de Saint-Mihiel (Mothers’ and Babies’                            Aid Society).

            Crèche et Société Maternelle de Sedan (Nursery & Mothers’ Aid).

            Œuvre de l’Armoire Lorraine (Layettes) (Lorraine Linen-cupboard).

Care of sickly and Delicate Children.

Preventoria :—

            Henri Lange Home — Saint-Quentin.

            Maurice-Pierre Home — Bidart (Basses-Pyrénées).

            Mautort-Abbeville (Somme).

            Saint-Jean-Cappelle (Nord).

            Etaples (Pas-de-Calais).

            Valloires (Somme).

            Villers-Allerand (Marne). For the children of Reims.

            Arbonne (Basses-Pyrénées).

            Saint-Pierre-d’Albigny (Savoie).

            Institution of the Rev. Pastor Pannier — Saint-Quentin (Aisne).

                   “          “   Sister Gabrielle Rosnet — Clemont-en-Argonne (Marne).

                   “          “   the Comtesse de Polignac for the Prevention of Tuberculosis —Reims (Marne).

                   “          “   “The Happy Children”.

                   “          “   Mademoiselle Ferry for the Prevention of Tuberculosis — Saint-Dié (Vosges).

            Reims Open-Air School at Villiers-Allerand.

Various Institutions :

            Charleville — Children sent to the seaside.

            Liez — Frières (Aisne). Dispensaries.

            St. Cengoulph — Dispensary.

            Tergnier — Rev. Father Piot’s Patronage.

            “The Devastated Marne” Comtess de la Rochefoucauld’s institution.

            Saint-Quentin — Distribution of boots to the Orphanage.

            Esnes (Meuse) Urgent Help Society.  Clothing distributed.

            Ville-en-Voëvre — Distribution of cradles.

            Arras — Distribution of clothing.  Help to Orphanages (Agricultural schools) Madame Valance Marbot’s institution.

           Saint-Laurent-de-Blangy (Pas-de-Calais) — Distribution of perambulators.

           Aulnoye (Nord). Distribution of layettes (Family Union).

           Douai (Nord).  Assistance to the Dispensary.  Gift to the Urgent Help Society.

           Lille (Nord).  The Rev. Pastor Bosc’s Orphanage.


            The Committee sent children from the Devastated Districts to the following Sanatoria and paid for them :

     Arcachon : Martime Sanatorium                                         (  821 days of hospitalisation).

    Mouchic (near Bordeaux)                                                     (  497   “    “                “              ).

    Kerpape en Plemeur (Morbihan). Antitubercular Home.       (5794   “    “                “             ).

    Zuydcoote (Nord). Maritime Senatorium                              (1116   “    “                “             ).

    Berck-sur-Mer (Cazin Hospital).                                           (  636   “    “                “             ).

Toys and clothes are, each year, distributed at Christmas by our Honorary President who is kind enough to continue giving her distinguished support to the Committee.


            As can be seen from the above short summary, the Committee has remained faithful to the idea which was foremost at its foundation, viz :

            To look after the children of the Devastated Districts ;

            To try and reach those who are most in need of help ;

            To give the help required without troubling about particular object to which the Funds is applied.

            The check kept on the use to which grants are put allows us to make sure that the money is employed as originally intended by the donors.

            It is therefore with the feeling of having entirely fulfilled the mission with which we are entrusted that the Committee renders an account of its action to those who so generously supplied our needs.  To them we express our deepest gratitude and tender the best thanks of our children who owe them the improved conditions under which they live, and in some cases their very lives.

Our friends in America, England, Canada and Australia already had the warmest place in our hearts for the help they gave us, with the other Allies, in defending right and civilisation.  They have added new and imperishable calls on our gratitude in giving the children who suffered so cruelly during the war the help indispensable to their existence.  The rising generation in France whose one desire is to grow up and fully develop in peace by their labour, will ever remember their debt of gratitude to their generous Allies.

            To all our friends, known or unknown, most sincerely we say thank you.


Imp. Brunet et Kotz, Paris”

N.B. This document is held within Hartley Burr Alexander papers, archived at the Nebraska State Historical Society, Lincoln, Nebraska, U.S.A.

French women and children making poppies in France. The Tampa Tribune (of Tampa, Florida), 20 May 1923.

French women and children making poppies in France.
The Tampa Tribune (of Tampa, Florida), 20 May 1923.

Leading up to the 1923 poppy drive, the V.F.W. had ordered French-made poppies from Madame Guérin but there were problems obtaining as many as was needed.   Iowa’s Mason City Globe-Gazette (01 November 1944) explained:  “due to the difficulty and delay in getting poppies from France, the V.F.W. made use of a surplus of French poppies that were on hand and the balance was provided by a firm of artificial flower manufacturers in New York City.   It was during the 1923 campaign that the V.F.W. evolved the idea which resulted in the V.F.W. Buddy Poppy – fashioned by disabled and needy veterans who were paid for their work as a practical means of providing assistance for these comrades.” 

In the same Tampa Tribune edition as the above photograph (20 May 1923), an article wrote about the local American Legion Post getting French-made poppies [sic]:  Legion Post Poppy Sale To Be Held Saturday; Get 12,000 From France.

Sale of poppies by the American Legion, U. S. S. Tampa Post No. 5, will be conducted next Saturday, the day preceding the Legion’s annual Memorial Day services, it has been announced by J. C. Huskisson, chairman of poppy day arrangements.

The Legion has secured 12,000 poppies from national headquarters and hope to sell all of them.  Purchasers are requested to wear their poppies on Memorial Day, in memory of those who died in the World War.

This sale of poppies, the Legion national flower, is an annual event with Legion posts throughout the country.  The greater portion of the proceeds here will o into the post fund for relief of disabled veterans of Hillsborough country, or for needy veterans and their families.  Part of the proceeds will be turned into the National American Legion overseas endownment fund, to insure perpetual care of the 32,000 American soldiers graves in Europe.  The national organization is endeavoring to raise a fund of at least $1000,000, or $200,000 if possible, the income of which will be used to care for and decorate the graves in Europe.  The American flag is still in Europe, floating over six cemeteries in France, one in Belgium and one in England.

With the enthusiastic assistance of the Red Cross and the American Legion Auxiliary, the Legionnaires will be able to see nearly everyone in Tampa next Saturday and give all a chance to purchase a poppy, paying whatever price they desire to pay for the flowers of Flanders.”

V.F.W. Poppy Anchor : V.F.W. Adjutant General Roual W. Elton and John J. Denny of the Admiral Peary Post. The Eugene Guard, Oregon. 25 May 1923.

V.F.W. Poppy Anchor : V.F.W. Adjutant General Roual W. Elton and John J. Denny of the Admiral Peary Post. The Eugene Guard, Oregon. 25 May 1923.


WORKERS OF VETERANS’ MEMORIAL POPPY DRIVE. The Anaconda Standard, 27 May 1923.

The Anaconda Standard, 27 May 1923.

This following text accompanied the photograph above in The Anaconda Standard, on 27 May 1923 [sic]:  “Three of the thousands of fair flower venders who will offer poppies for sale throughout the country to be worn on Memorial Day in honor of those who fell in the world war, all the proceeds to be devoted to relief of disabled ex-service men.  President Harding, in a letter to Col. T. L. Huston, commander-in-chief of the Veterans of Foreign Wars, has expressed his cordial accord with the Poppy Day plan, and the Governors of a number of the forty-two States in which Poppy Day will be observed have already given it their cordial indorsement.  The poppy girls, all members of V. F. W. national headquarters staff, are, left to right, Miss May Hertig, Miss Catherine Barrett and Miss Thelma Kanner.”

In February 1924, the Veterans of Foreign Wars registered the name “Buddy Poppy” with the U. S. Patent Office and it is their Buddy Poppies which are distributed throughout the U.S.A. today.  The days of the French-made poppies for the V.F.W. were over but not the loyalty that the organisation continued to show for Madame Guérin – as the originator of the “Poppy Day”.

Buddy Poppy 1924 : Pres. Calvin Coolidge receiving the first VFW

Buddy Poppy 1924 : Pres. Calvin Coolidge receiving the first VFW “Buddy Poppy” from Capt. Wm. Homer Carroll on 19 March 1924. Courtesy of Library of Congress (edited images).


“Pinning on Poppies” – The Chicago Tribune, 28 May 1924.

“Pinning on Poppies” – The Chicago Tribune, 28 May 1924.

On Wednesday 28 May 1924, The Chicago Tribune printed a “TRIBUNE Photo” and a short description: PINNING ON POPPIES.  Gertrude Moos of the Nettelhorst school is one of the city’s most active workers in the Poppy week campaign.  She is seen pinning a flower on Policeman Martin Hugh at Broadway and Melrose avenue.” 

Again, the Poppy Girls were wearing sashes – a hallmark insignia that Madame Guérin made popular with her early Poppy Days … e.g. “… girls were out arrayed in pleasant smiles and sashes …” in Park City, Utah, 24 April 1920.

The Independent Record paper (Helena, Montana) enlightened its readers on 13 May 1951, with the following extract from a full page of articles about the “Buddy Poppies”:  Veterans of Foreign Wars Adopt Flowers as Symbols of Aid, Relief and Comfort for Needy by George Remington.  “In Flanders fields the poppies blow between the crosses, row on row. . . .” 

Those famed poppies of Flanders fields inspired John McCrae to write a poem known to every American school child.  Those same poppies in that renowned Belgian cemetery* for American Doughboys who fell in World war I also serves as inspiration for one of America’s best known and most worthwhile drives – the Veterans of Foreign Wars Buddy Poppy sale.  [*The Flanders Field American Cemetery in Waregem?] 

In 1922, Madame Guerin of France, inspired by the symbolic beauty of the poppies of Flanders, sought the co-operation of the VFW in selling poppies made in France to aid disabled and needy war veterans.   The symbolism of the Buddy Poppy as sponsored by the VFW was promptly accepted by the American people.  In 1923, Gen. Frank T. Hines, director of the United States Veterans’ bureau, officially endorsed the plan.  The VFW established a workshop in Pittsburgh which was staffed by disabled veterans.  These men assembled the materials from which the flowers were fashioned and conceived the idea of calling them “Buddy Poppies.” …”

Keeping with the ‘Veterans of Foreign Wars’, the photograph below depicts two American V.F.W. ex-service men, who were probably involved in discussions and decisions about the ground-rules for the V.F.W. “Buddy Poppy” – which took place at the V.F.W. National Convention on 08 September 1924.  A Pennyslvanian newspaper article (transcribed below) described the men as “prominent in the affairs of the Veterans of Foreign wars”.   They have been identified as Sergt. Bill Kahler and John W. Brown.

American ex-service men, heading to Veteran of Foreign Wars’ Convention on 08 September 1924. Courtesy of Heather Anne Johnson.

American ex-service men, heading to Veteran of Foreign Wars’ Convention on 08 September 1924. Courtesy of Heather Anne Johnson.

Hand written on the photo’s back is: “Adjutant Alex Berger Sergeant Bill Kahler” “Liason Atlantic City Los Angeles” “To national convention Veterans of Foreign Wars”.  Based on the uniform and stripes, it is believed that Adjutant Sergt. Kahler is the veteran standing on the left and Junior Vice-Commander Pvt. John W. Brown is on the right.

The articles transcribed below give an insight into the background of the photograph:

‘The Scranton Republican’, Scranton, Pennyslvania, on 16 August 1924, page 3 [sic]:-   CALIFORNIA V.F.W. MEN HERE ON VISIT. 

Two ex-service men, who are prominent in the affairs of the Veterans of Foreign wars, arrived in this city yesterday from Binghamton on the last lap of their motor trip to Atlantic City where they will attend the national V. F. W. convention next month.  The veterans, John W. Brown, junior vice-commander of Alex Berger post, No. 1013, and William Kahler, adjutant of the same post, both of Los Angles. Cal., are the guests of the local V. F. W. post. 

Whilst in Scranton Kahler and Brown will initiate Robert Chase, Bet Blesecker, Leon Fetterolk, Paul Kruger and Ellis Polak, into the Muddy Order of Turtles, a new V. F. W. degree.  They will also attend the V. F. W. clambake and concert at Helbing’s grove tomorrow.  The two travellers expect to return to California during the latter part of next month.”

‘The Reading Times’ of Reading, Pennsylvania, on 28 August 1924 [sic]:  FOREIGN WAR VET HIKERS OFF AGAIN.  Sergeant S. R. Kahler and Private J. W. Brown, of the Berger Post No.113, Veterans of Foreign Wars, Los Angeles, who are hiking cross country from San Francisco to arouse interest in the national encampment of the vets at Atlantic City next week left yesterday after spending three days in this city.  While here they initiated 55 members in the Muddy Order of the Turtle a side order of the V.F.W.” 

Given all the information gleaned, it is believed that The Scranton Republican bears the most accurate facts.   The photograph was either taken in Los Angeles, before they left, or on their arrival in Atlantic City.

V.F.W. Post 1013 was formed in early 1923.  A Post cannot be named after a living person and, it is believed, this Post was originally named in honour of US Marine Private Alexander Tindolph Berger, who had been killed in France on 19 July 1918.   Information on Messrs. Berger, Brown and Kahler will be shared here at a future date.

In 2015, Post 1013 changed its name from to that of ‘Cpl Guy Gabaldon Post’.  With the shifting sands of time, Post 1013 has honoured a more recent veteran – Corporal Guy Gabaldon (1926-2006).  Guy Gabaldon was a US Marine – a local lad decorated for his service during the Second World War battles for the Saipan and Tinian islands in 1944.   His war-time actions inspired the film ‘Hell to Eternity’.

This has been another digression from the story of Poppy Lady Madame Guérin but it is considered worth while sharing.

So … to return to the subject in hand …

American veterans had begun making poppies but, certainly in those early days, they could not meet the demand.   Take the American Legion … it still had to call upon their Auxiliary women to volunteer to make extra poppies.  Additionally, the Legion had to out-source: “… Unfortunately, not all of the poppies sold in the United States are made by disabled veterans.  Last year over 3,000,000 poppies were made by disabled veterans for the Auxiliary’s National Poppy Committee.  But over 3,000,000 poppies were made in factories — “commercial poppies” they call them, in contrast with the poppies the veterans make. Poppy-making and poppy-selling make up an endless chain of help for the disabled men in hospitals. The profits from Auxiliary poppy sales finance new purchases from the men who make the poppies at their bedside. …”  (American Legion Weekly, Vol. 8, No. 14, 02 April 1926).

After the birth of the “Buddy Poppy”, the Veterans of Foreign Wars continued to keep faith with Madame Guérin – they continued to remember the Remembrance Poppy’s roots, while others forgot.  To its credit, the Veterans of Foreign Wars continue to keep faith with Madame Guérin to this day – remembering the Remembrance Poppy’s roots …

The Veterans of Foreign Wars' patented 'Buddy Poppy'. Courtesy of Heather Anne Johnson.

The Veterans of Foreign Wars’ patented ‘Buddy Poppy’. Courtesy of Heather Anne Johnson.

The State of Pennsylvania’s American Legion (and its Auxiliary) produced a particular type of tagged Remembrance Poppy, shown below, during the years 1927 and 1934.  If the design did not change during that period, this particular poppy could have been produced during any one of those eight years.

The Pennsylvanian American Legion tags read: “IN MEMORIAM. Made by Disabled Veterans In Hospitals”, on one side; and “OFFICIAL PENNSYLVANIA POPPY  THE AMERICAN LEGION AND AMERICAN LEGION AUXILIARY”, on the other.

This is a beautiful Pennsylvanian American Legion Remembrance Poppy.   c1927-1934.  Courtesy/© Heather Anne Johnson.

This is a beautiful Pennsylvanian American Legion Remembrance Poppy.
c1927-1934. Courtesy/© Heather Anne Johnson.


This is a beautiful Pennsylvanian American Legion Remembrance Poppy. c1925-1932. Courtesy/© Heather Anne Johnson.

Pennsylvanian American Legion Remembrance Poppy.
c1925-1934.  Courtesy/© Heather Anne Johnson.

The Pennsylvanian poppies were identical in style and size to the ones Anna supplied to the U.S.A. in 1921.  The Pennsylvanian ones had two layers of fabric though, instead of one, and they had a paper tag, not a fabric one.  None were identical because they were hand-made.  It is deduced the Pennsylvanian Legion Auxiliary used the French poppy as a template. They compare favourably to the French-made poppies that graced the streets of Great Britain in 1921.

One Pennsylvanian poppy is made from pink fabric.  The colour is the same on both sides of the fabric, which suggests a scientific reason for the dye colour deterioration of the once-red vintage poppies – rather than sun-light.  Interestingly, a 1921 Guérin poppy held by the British poppy charity ‘Poppyscotland’ is pink just like the American Legion one.

L. to R: 1. American Legion (Penns); 2. French-made for Gt. Britain; (3) Same as 2., Poppyscotland©

L. to R: 1. American Legion (Penns); 2. French-made for Gt. Britain; (3) Same as 2., Poppyscotland©

Returning to Pennsylvania … the Shamokin News Dispatch edition of 21 May 1927 wrote about the American Legion Poppy Day plans [sic]:

“LEGION AUXILIARY MAKING PLANS FOR ANNUAL POPPY SALE.  Memorial Flowers to be Offered This Year Have Been Made by Invalided Soldiers in Hospitals. 

The American Legion Auxiliary has completed all plans to launch its annual poppy sale during the coming week. 

The ladies have left nothing undone to make this the most successful sale ever held by the local unit. 

The American Legion and Auxiliary have inaugurated a new industry in the veterans’ hospitals in Pennsylvania this year. 

Our men in this state assisted by the Auxiliary of the American Legion department of Pennsylvania, have made all the poppies to be sold in this state. 

The annual opportunity to the public to wear a memorial flower for the beloved service men who gave their lives in the World war and provide a means to add to funds spent for welfare work among the needy veterans of today, will have an added appeal this year, as the poppies are Pennsylvania’s own product. 

The bulk of the poppies have been made at hospital No. 49 and the Marine hospitals in Philadephia and Pittsburgh assisted by the auxiliary units throughout the state. 

The local unit has made about one half of the poppies to be placed on sale in Shamokin. 

The management of the Victoria and Capitol theatres have very generously consented to show the auxiliary poppy film showing the ex-service man at work on the poppies and the ladies will be on hand in the lobbies of the theatres and on the streets, with the finished product, and appeal to the public to co-operate in this worthy cause. 

“BUY ME”  I stand for service.  I enabled one cent to be earned by a disheartened service man in the hospital who needed it, and all you pay for men goes 100 per cent for service for those for whom the war is not yet over. “Buy me.” 

“WEAR ME” I represent the sacrificial blood of the men who fell in flanders fields.  I am a memorial to all thoses who died in service “for God and Country.”  In reverence and understanding “Wear Me.”

Another article, on 28 May 1928, was accompanied by a very poor photograph that depicts a dozen veterans sitting around three sides of a table (on the left), decked with poppies.  Edwin E. Hollenback (American Legion State Commander) and Mrs. Frederick P. Moore (American Legion Auxiliary State President) stand to the right of this table; with just the edge of another table and seated veterans to their rear.  A row of standing veterans can be seen at the back of the room.   Mrs. Moore may be holding a poppy wreath.    The article appeared in the Pennsylvanian Gettysburg Times [sic]:


The above shows Edwin E. Hollenback, State Commander of The American Legion, Department of Pennsylvania, and Mrs. Frederick P. Moore, State President of The American Legion Auxiliary, inspecting poppies made by disabled veterans in a Veterans’ hospital in Pennsylvania. 

It was announced today by State Headquarters in Philadelphia that the posts and units in Pennsylvania have made application for 1,350,000 poppies. 

State Commander Hollenback said today that poppies are made by men not receiving compensation from the Government and that the profits made my the posts and units would be used for Child Welfare and the care of the disabled and their families. 

He also stated that poppy labels are marked “Official Pennsylvania Poppy.  The American Legion and The American Legion Auxiliary—MADE BY DISABLED VETERANS IN HOSPITALS”.   Other poppies sold have not been approved by the State Department.”   

Pennsylvanian American Legion Remembrance Poppy. c1925-1932. Courtesy/© Heather Anne Johnson.

Pennsylvanian American Legion Remembrance Poppy. c1925-1932. Courtesy/© Heather Anne Johnson.


For both the United States of America and Great Britain, it appears that it became the custom to send some of their respective Remembrance Poppies to be sold in France.  With regard to the U.S.A., if this photograph is anything to go by, American poppies were sold in the lead up to Memorial Day in May.  A label on the back of the following photograph reads:  “AIDING THE POPPY SALE. IN FRANCE WITH THE CONTINGENT OF VISITING AMERICAN MAYORS, JUDGE FRANK M. PADDEN OF CHICAGO, ILLINOIS PURCHASES A POPPY FROM A PRETTY AMERICAN VENDER, IN PARIS, FRANCE.”   

“AIDING THE POPPY SALE”. 06 April 1931. Paris, France. [Credit “ACME - P & P’ 6.4.31.”. See © note]

“AIDING THE POPPY SALE”. 06 April 1931. Paris, France. [Credit “ACME – P & P’ 6.4.31.”. See © note]


Research by the author unearthed the facts that ‘Acme News Pictures’ no longer exists; its archives were purchased by ‘Corbis Images’; ‘Corbis Images’ was sold to the ‘Visual China Group’; and VCG has granted ‘Getty Images’ a licence for the images.  A search, at the author’s instigation, has not located this photograph within archives and, as owner of this particular photographic print, I am displaying it.  Heather Anne Johnson.

American Legion Auxiliary Poppy Day Stamp. 1948. Courtesy/© Heather Anne Johnson.

American Legion Auxiliary Poppy Day Stamp. 1948.
Courtesy/© Heather Anne Johnson.

This image shown above is of an American Legion Auxiliary Poppy Day stamp.  It appears it can be described as a ‘Cinderella’ stamp … one that, to all intents and purposes, looks like a postage stamp but was never valid for postal services.  It may also be defined as a ‘Poster Stamp’ … given that it is delivering a promotional message – in this instance, for Poppy Day.   The ‘stamp’ measures 1 1/8 inch wide and 1 3/4 inch long.  The stamp contains the following text:  “for Democracy’s Fallen Defenders”; “A POPPY OVER EVERY LOYAL HEART”; “Poppy Day”; with the words “THE AMERICAN LEGION. AMERICAN LEGION AUXILIARY. VETERAN MADE POPPY” appearing on the tag shown in image.

U.S. Veterans of Foreign Wars ‘Cinderella’ stamps. c1935. Courtesy/© Heather Anne Johnson.

U.S. Veterans of Foreign Wars ‘Cinderella’ stamps. c1935.
Courtesy/© Heather Anne Johnson.

The above Veterans of Foreign Wars ‘Cinderella’ stamps bear the message:


American Legion 2016 Poppy tag/pin, as distributed in Las Vegas. Courtesy of Heather Anne Johnson.

American Legion 2016 Poppy tag/pin, distributed in Las Vegas. Courtesy of Heather Anne Johnson.


Two vintage card ‘Buddy Poppies’ flanking one vintage cloth ‘Buddy Poppy’ Courtesy/© of Heather Anne Johnson.

Two vintage card ‘Buddy Poppies’ flanking one vintage cloth ‘Buddy Poppy’
Courtesy/© of Heather Anne Johnson.


‘The Jewish War Veterans of the U.S.A. and National Ladies Auxiliary’ White Poppy. Post-1928. Courtesy/© of Heather Anne Johnson.

‘The Jewish War Veterans of the U.S.A. and National Ladies Auxiliary’ White Poppy.
Post-1928. Courtesy/© of Heather Anne Johnson.

Above is a vintage white poppy, distributed by ‘The Jewish War Veterans of the U.S.A. and National Ladies Auxiliary’.  Its age is not known – it has lost pureness of colour and some of its blue centre.  It is made of ‘painted’ card and identical in construction to the Veterans of Foreign Wars organisation’s ‘Buddy Poppy’ – only the colours separates them.

It appears that the ‘Jewish War Veterans of the U.S.A.’ organisation is not connected to the ‘Veterans of Foreign Wars’.   The Jewish veterans’ organisation was founded in 1896 by Jewish veterans of the American Civil War – it was called ‘The Hebrew Union Veterans Association’.   The organisation changed its name a few times over the years but, in 1928, it finally became known as the ‘Jewish War Veterans’.   The organisation is based on the same principals as the Veterans of Foreign Wars and the American Legion – to honour those who served and to raise funds for veterans.

The wearing of a white poppy began on Armistice Day 1933, when members of the Women’s Co-operative Guild of Great Britain.  British Legion officials were strongly opposed to it.   One Legion official said “… There is no need for a peace emblem in addition to our poppy.  Not only does it stand as a memory of the sacrifice of millions, but of those who fought and still live to do all possible to prevent a future war. … This is an insult to the Flanders poppy and all it stands for. …”  (Sheffield Independent, 30 October 1933).   A little more information about the white poppy is included in the chapter: REMEMBRANCE POPPY TIMELINE FOR GREAT BRITAIN.


The 1921 Poppy Day commemoration was the last one Anna Guérin was probably involved in.  Canada was saying “Au revoir Madame Guérin” too.

Ahead of the 1922 Armistice Day, the Toronto Globe (12 February 1922) reported [sic]: “a small portion of the poppies to be used next Armistice Day will be made by children in the French orphanages, but the bulk of the poppies will be the product of returned men out of work, it being the desire of Mlle. Guerin, who is in charge of arrangements, to alleviate the unemployment situation as far as possible.”    

To duplicate a section of Anna Guérin’s already-quoted February 1922 letter, written from Montreal, Canada, Anna recalled the 1921 poppy campaign in Canada:  “… here in Canada, the Great war Veterans have had with 1,000,000 small poppies and 200,000 large ones $90,000 clear profit for their relief work in their different branches, and the French side will have about 80,000 dollars.   I am just arrived here to settle this part.  On the $80,000 the French Poppies will be paid, the expenses of the Campaign also and the balances, clear profit will go to the poor children of the battle fields; I am proud to say that my delegates, two of them, left here to do the work with the Veterans while I was in England, have done splendidly, having run this campaign for the Veterans with their help, of course, with less than 6% expenses.  …”   

An early Canadian Remembrance Poppy: c1922-25? Courtesy of Heather A. Johnson.

A Canadian Remembrance Poppy: a Currie poppy, missing the metal “Currie” stud – 1934 and 1935.  Courtesy of Heather A. Johnson.

The next chapter in the Canada’s Remembrance Poppy history, involves one Captain [Brigidier] James Learmonth Melville M.C. but his name is rarely mentioned.  As Madame Guérin was once known as the true “Originator of the Poppy Day”, Captain Melville M.C. was once known for his work connected with Canadian veterans and the poppy.

After the end of World War One, Captain James Learmonth Melville, M.C. became the Principal of the Vocational School for Disabled Soldiers.

On 31 May 1920, James married Clare Gladys King at Dominion Methodist Church, Ottawa.

In 1921, James was appointed the Unit Director of Administration in the Department of Soldiers’ Re-Establishment.  The post of Director of Orthopaedic and Vetcraft Services followed.

We are enlightened by the following article from The Times Colonist, of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada (9 November 1989), which quotes James from an interview [sic]:

How a modest flower became a potent symbol. by J. A. Davidson.

“… … a few days before Remembrance Day 1979, I visited Brigadier James L. Melville in the National Defence Medical Centre in Ottawa.  “Jimmy,” as he was known to many old soldiers, particularly those who had served in the Royal Canadian Engineers, was then in his 92nd year.  He was a member of the Ottawa church of which I was minister, Dominion-Chalmers United.  That day we chatted about, among other things, the Poppy of Remembrance and his role in the development of it as a symbol: I had first heard about that a year earlier.

Jimmy came to Canada from his native Scotland not long before the outbreak of the First World War.  He served in the Canadian Army during that war and was awarded the Military Cross for gallantry at Vimy, and later a bar to it.  During the Second World War he was on active service, finishing as a brigadier.

Shortly after the First World War, Jimmy joined the federal Department of Civil Re-establishment.  He was put in charge of what were called “sheltered workshops,” which had been set up to provide employment for disabled veterans.

Sometime in the early 1920s, he met Madame E. Guerin, a French-woman who had the idea of making and selling artificial poppies, based on the French field poppies, to raise money for assistance to French war orphans.  She had come to Canada because she was aware of Canadian interest in the poppy as a symbol.  The authorities sent her to see Jimmy Melville.  In an interview in 1978, he called “a very kind lady” and “a very good business deal.”

Jimmy persuaded her to let him have the Canadian manufacturing rights because he hoped that in Canada the symbolic poppies could be made in the workshops he had helped establish for disabled veterans, with the object of selling them on behalf of them and their dependents.  Here is how in 1978 Jimmy reported the arrangement:

“I promised her that we would operate on a non-profit basis, and I kept that promise.  I found a Madame de Witt in Toronto who made the dies for us, and after that all the rest of the work was done in the veterans’ workshops.  We sold the finished flowers to the Great War Veterans Association, and they took care of all the marketing and distribution, with profits going into a special fund.”

The Great War Veterans Association became an integral part of the Canadian Legion, which was established in 1925 – later to be known as the Royal Canadian Legion.

Jimmy Melville, a gracious and gentle man, claimed no special credit for the poppy program in Canada.  “It was Madame Guerin who started it all,” he said. “I just picked up on a good idea.”  Yes, and he ran with it.

Jimmy Melville lost a brother in the First World War and a son in the Second. I officiated at his funeral in 1980.  During the Service, I read In Flanders Fields.

Dr. Davidson, a retire minister of the United Church of Canada, lives in Victoria.”

Read more about James Learmonth Melville, M.C. here:

For the 1922 Canadian poppy campaign, poppies were made by Canadian returned veterans but they were also made by others:

1)     French orphans:- an article in the Toronto Globe, on 12 February 1922, explained a small quantity of poppies was supplied by French orphanages.  This supply may not have been connected to Anna Guérin but, instead, to the “Mademoiselle” Guérin who is mentioned in Chapter 7a (who was linked to orphanages) [sic]:

Keep Veterans Employed Making Armistice Poppies

A small portion of the poppies to be used next Armistice Day will be made by children in the French orphanages, but the bulk of the poppies will be the product of returned men returned men out of work, it being the desire of Mlle. Guerin, who is in charge of arrangements, to alleviate the unemployment situation as far as possible.  A special workroom will be provided.  Some of the poppies wil come from Christie Street Hospital men, as well, who made approximately 6,000 for the Franco-Canadian Orphanage last year.  The Great War Veterans’ Association has given its verbal agreement to assist Mlle. Guerin.”

2)         Three Canadian commercial enterprises were also involved, as is described in the 3 November 1922 edition of The Vancouver Sun (of Vancouver, British Columbia [sic]:

MAKING POPPIES BY OUTSIDE FIRMS HURTING VETERANS.  This Is Claim Made by Officials of Dominion Command, Who Are Indignant.  PRIVATE ORGANIZATIONS CUTTING INTO PROPOSAL.  One in B. C., One in Western Ontario and One in Toronto, It Is SaidBy Canadian Press.

OTTAWA, Nov. 2.—Unexpected competition against the work of disabled soldiers in the manufacture of the silken poppy, sold by branches of the Great War Veterans’ Association on Armistice Day as “The Flower of Remembrance,” is causing great indignation among the officials of the Dominion command of the association here.  They claim that this competition on the part of commercial firms will, if continued, prove a big factor in preventing disabled veterans earning an independent livelihood.  Last season, it will be remembered, the poppies were manufactured by the children of the devastated regions of France.


This year the G.W.V.A. prepared plans to have the poppies made in Canada by disabled ex-service men, C. G. MacNeil, Dominion secretary-treasurer of the association, stated in commenting on the situation. It was not possible to put the scheme into full operation in time to secure the number of poppies required for Armistice Day this year and a temporary arrangement was made with a private firm to make up the deficiency on the condition that disabled veterans or veterans dependents were employed in the work.

Plans for next year called for the manufacture of the full requirement of poppies by disabled men, with continual work and remuneration for the men concerned.  This arrangement, Mr. MacNeil intimated, might have  to be modified if the competition from commercial firms was kept up.  The idea of a non-competitive business was highly attractive to the disabled, and the Dominion command, Mr. MacNeil declared, did not gain a dollar through poppy day campaigns.

Mr. Macneil sketched the objects of the poppy day campaigns under three headings:


First, to provide every Canadian with a token of remembrance; second, to establish an industry capable of providing permanent employment for the disabled, and, third, to establish the nucleus of local funds to alleviate distress among veterans and dependents.

These objects, he asserted, were in danger of defeat through the entry of commercialism.  When the disabled men commenced manufacture of the poppies last spring, a firm came into existence in Toronto, either manufacturing or importing silken flowers.  This was followed by another in Western Ontario and a third in British Columbia, the latter manufacturing paper flowers.

Steps should be taken by the people of Canada to see that the manufacture of poppies was preserved for the disabled veterans, Mr. MacNeil declared.”

On 9 November 1922, The Gazette (of Montreal) wrote [sic]:


Depot at 363 St. Catherine West Will be Busy Scene.

The poppies which are to be sold in the streets on Saturday in the National Poppy Day Campaign are being distributed today to the forty or more districts into which the city has been divided.  At the central depot, the Bank of Hochelaga branch at 363 St. Catherine street west, 100,000 small and 75,000 large poppies have been apportioned to the districts and placed in boxes for convenient handling.  The captains of districts have been instructed to call at the central depot this afternoon, between one and six o’clock, to sign receipts for their allotments of poppies and boxes.  The ladies in charge of the depot will work through until all the poppies have been sent to the various district headquarters throughout the city, the nearest branches of the Bank of Hochelaga being utilized wherever possible.  For this distribution a number of motor cars have been generously provided by owners in sympathy with the purposes of Poppy Day.

Those desiring to purchase wreaths for memorial or decorative use will find a full supply at the central depot, 363 St. Catherine street west.”

On the 1922 Armistice Day, Saturday 11 November, the Edmonton Journal (of Alberta, Canada) wrote about its city’s commemoration on pages 1 and 20 [sic]:


Millions Wear Poppies “In Remembrance” for Those Who Saved Empire.


Edmonton Recalls With Pride and Love Her ‘Silent Sons’.

Armistice day, November 11, 1922—four years since that speech-making event when the blood of the empire’s manhood ceased to flow on the already blood stained fields of war torn Europe.

Poppies, poppies, everywhere.  Flanders fields have come to Edmonton.  Dull skies above, with snow showers threatening.  Flags at half mast on every pubic building.  But everywhere the symbolic scarlet poppy shines, to say that Edmonton remembers the glorious dead.

From an early hour this morning, the ladies of Edmonton, braving the keen nip of a wind that spells the approach of winter, held away over the citizenry, each with her basket of poppies, large and small, and the first flow of city-bound traffic found the sale of poppies in full progress.

Emblem of Remembrance

This is no ordinary tag day.  This is Edmonton’s own day, and everybody, rich or poor, young or old, feels in honor bound to wear the emblem of remembrance.  No need to beg of people today.  The steady stream of silver, commencing with a goodly flow in the early morning, widened into a real river of cash by noon, and ere the day is out, it will mean a flood of money for the Veteran’s cause, such as no ordinary tag day could ever hope to gather in.

And it is not everybody who buys only the small poppy.  The humble ten cent piece comes in by the hundred, but every few minutes somebody wants the big flower, and a quarter or some large sum finds its way into the ever-ready collection box.  An old lady, clad in rusty back, gets off the street car at the post office stop.  She isn’t in the fur coat and limousine class, by any means.  The weather-beaten old purse she carries, has no fat-looking bulge to denote extreme affluences.  Rather are its sides shrunken and wrinkled with leanness, much like its owner.

“A poppy, my dear,” says the old lady, peering through steel-rimmed glasses at the eager-eyed girl with the basket.  “Why, yes, I must have a poppy.”

Wants a Big Poppy

The girl hands out one of the small flowers and holds her box expectantly for the anticipated dime.  The old lady draws herself up with quite a haughty air.  “No—I must have a big one—a big one—” and she tucks the growing thing of warm color into the folds of an old grey woollen scarf, where it shines like a ruby against her faded colors.

One minute to eleven!  A siren sounds from the Hudson’s Bay walls.  Suddenly the hum of traffic ceases.  Hurrying feet lag and pause.  A silence born of those far Flanders fields, it would seem, falls over every moving thing.

“In Flanders’ fields the poppies blow,” murmurs an old man, bare-headed to the keen edged wind.  Some-body sobs—it is the old lady with the big poppy.  Her old eyes are strained and wet with unshed tears—she, too sees that far-off field where the poppies bow—perhaps.

“What is it, mummy?” says a little girl in an awed whisper, as the silence falls like a benediction.

Silence is Tense

The strain of that tense silence becomes almost too much to bear.  It is too fraught with memories of the brave hearts that ceased to beat, in those awful years after 1914.

Then the two-minute silence ceases.  The city falls again into the whir and hum of its everyday life.  Half-mast flags are run proudly mast high.  But still the crimson poppies bloom again, each citizen proudly wearing the emblem as he steps out on the day’s round of activity.

Only out in the little cemetery, with the great cross of sacrifice overhead, the crimson poppies dance and nod in the wind, just as, summer after summer, the real poppies will bloom and blow, above the graves of those who, though buried far from home, are still at home in the hearts of those who can never forget.”

Reportedly, in 1923, Lillian Bilsky Freiman became a member of the National Poppy Advisory Committee and chaired Ottawa’s annual poppy campaign nearly every year until her death.

On 06 October 1923, The Winnipeg Tribune enlightened its readers about the Canadian ‘Artcraft’ poppies, to be sold in Vetcraft Shops that year – continuing Poppy Lady Madame Guérin’s legacy: 


In a statement issued by the Great War veterans’ association, attention is called to the coming sale of poppies on Armistice Day.   The association points out that there is only one source of manufacture from which poppies can be secured that will give full effect to the purposed for which Poppy Day was instituted and that is the Vetcraft Shops, where the flowers are made by disabled veterans.  The Dominion command of the G.W.V.A. has the sole authority for the distribution of Artcraft poppies. 

It may be well, the statement points out, to remind ex-service men and women and the public generally of the three great objects attained by the distribution of poppies on Armistice Day. 

First the wearing, of a poppy emblematic of Flanders Fields, provides an appropriate means of demonstrating that the great sacrifice of Canadian manhood and womanhood during the Great War is not readily forgotten. 

Second, it provides a means of re-establishment for seriously disabled men whose disabilities prevent them from engaging in any work other than poppy manufacture. 

Third, it creates funds for the assistance of disabled and otherwise handicapped ex-service man, as well as the dependents of the fallen.  

This ensures that every cent derived from the sale of poppies on Armistice Day is retained in Canada and devoted to bettering the conditions of disabled soldiers and dependents.  Commercial manufacture and distribution means a large proportion of the proceeds go to private profit and possibly to foreign countries.

‘CANADIAN LEGION of the British Empire Service League’

In June 1925, Canada hosted a conference of the ‘British Empire Services League’ in Ottawa where it was decided that the poppy would be adopted as the Empire’s universal emblem of remembrance.    The ‘British Empire Services League’ is now known by the title of the ‘Royal Commonwealth Ex-Services League’.  

The “Canadian Legion” name is first found used in 1925, when the various groups of World War One Canadian veterans were unified under the ‘Canadian Legion of the British Empire Service League’ banner.   This incorporation became official in July 1926.  Remembrance poppies, in 1926, were sold “under the auspices of the Canadian Legion of the British Empire Service League”.  On 8 November 1926, The Ottawa Journal (of Ottawa, Ontario) printed a long article – the first paragraph is transcribed here [sic]:


Hundreds of Women Are Aiding In Sale.

Thousands of poppies and poppy wreaths displayed in homes and offices on Armistice Day will be a public symbol of remembrance of the sacrifices of the Great War which ended eight years ago on Thursday. It will also be a practical remembrance for the poppies being sold from 56 Sparks street under the auspices of the Canadian Legion of the British Empire Service League, were made by 300 disabled veterans who are only fit to engage in very light work at the Vetcraft shops maintained by the Department of Soldiers’ Civil Re-establishment.  All the money taken in for poppies benefit the veterans who are needy.  The bulk of it goes for the purchase of the poppies which ensures a livelihood for almost completely disabled men, while the remainder is used by the local branches of veterans for relief work amongst their members who perhaps are out of employment, or are ill or otherwise distressed. …”

A Canadian 'Vetcraft' Remembrance Poppy. Courtesy of Heather Anne Johnson.

A Canadian ‘Vetcraft’ Remembrance Poppy. Courtesy of Heather Anne Johnson.

The rear of the poppy shown above bears the ‘VETCRAFT’ trademark, together with the emblem of the ‘Canadian Legion of the British Empire Service League’.  It is deduced that this particular style of poppy dates to no earlier than 1927 and no later than 1951 – but any enlightenment regarding a more precise date is welcome.

The new ‘Canadian Legion of the British Empire Service League’ emblem was introduced when the special Charter and Act of Parliament were issued for the Legion, in July 1926. The Canadian Legion and ‘Vetcraft’ collaboration began in 1927.  The emblem bears the Tudor Crown (imperial and state crown of England and Great Britain), which was last used by King George VI – the last Poppy Appeal before his death would have been 1951.

The front cover of the 15 June 1926 edition (3rd issue) of ‘The Legionary’ magazine depicts the emblem (as it appears on this poppy) and text reads: “The design selected by the National Executive as portraying the texture and scope of the Canadian Legion of the British Empire Service League.  The maple leaf is superimposed on the Union Jack, the whole surmounted by the Imperial Crown.  The representative of the King in Canada, His Excellency Baron Byng of Vimy, was presented with the first button of this design on his farewell visit to Winnipeg.”

In 1931, after pressure from the Canadian Legion, the Canadian parliament amended the Armistice Act – to set aside the eleventh November to pay tribute to those “who gave their lives that freedom might prevail.

Canadian “Currie Button” Remembrance Poppy 1934/35. Image courtesy/© of K. Furey.

Canadian “Currie Button” Remembrance Poppy 1934/35. Image courtesy/© of K. Furey.

The above is a Canadian “Currie Button” Remembrance Poppy dating from 1934 or 1935, commemorating Ontario-born General Sir Arthur William Currie G.C.M.G., K.C.B.     Currie had been an officer in the Canadian Army during the First World War.  It dates to Armistice Day 1934 or 1935 – the first and second Remembrance Days in Canada after Arthur died (30 November 1933).

The “Currie Button” replaced the Canadian Legion crest.   They were “made by disabled returned men in Red Cross workshops”.   The following article in The Ottawa Journal on 15 March 1934 explains the concept: 

“Currie Button To Be Featured on Small Poppy. 

Veterans Plan to Honor Sir Arthur’s Memory and Stop Cheap Foreign Imports.                 

As a tribute to General Sir Arthur Currie, later Grand President of the Canadian Legion and to further perpetuate his memory, the Canadian Legion in session to-day unanimously decided to change the design of the small poppy and replace it with a Currie Button.  It was pointed out that Lady Currie had already consented to the carrying out of the tribute. 

The tribute to the late Canadian, was first suggested by Lieut. Col. L. R. La-Fleche, D.S.O., A.D.C, and his report formed the basis of a number of changes adopted with regard to making the poppies and poppy wreaths more attractive. These were embodied in report presented by E. Ralph Adye, Whitby, Ontario, who urged all members of the Legion to have as their yearly objective the sale of 5,000.000 poppies. He claimed that in the United Kingdom, with population of 45,000,000, a total of 43,000,000 poppies were sold. 

Some From Germany. 

The fact that on Remembrance Day “bootleg” poppies, made in Japan and even In Germany, were sold in Canada, was scored by delegates from British Columbia.  Poppies could be imported from the Orient at $4.50 a thousand, it was said, and the sale of these should be stopped. The convention felt that this situation would be corrected by the adoption of the “Currie button.”    

Wreaths should be made more attractive and the practice of depositing other than Vetcraft wreaths at official memorial services discouraged, the convention agreed.   

Thanks Assistants. 

In his comprehensive report on the Canadian Legion National Poppy Advisory Committee, Lieut-Col. La-Fleche as chairman, expressed his thanks to his associates Mrs. A. J. Freiman, O.B.E., J. C. Campbell, and J. R. Bowler. He also expressed appreciation of the splendid co-operation extended by Government officials, Provincial Command and branches of the Legion, and Ladies Auxiliaries for their cooperation, kindness and practical assistance.”

Two other versions of the “Currie” poppy have been seen by the author (other than the two shown on this page, dating to 1934 and/or 1935.  They are described thus:

1) a much larger poppy, with more stamens; no central ‘button’;  a long stem, with leaf; poppy was approximately 4 inches dia. to the widest point of the opposing petals;  one petal’s front had a black painted metal “Currie” button on its front (as shown above); one petal’s reverse had the printed words “MANUFACTURED BY VETCRAFT”; and another petal’s reverse had the printed words “DISTRIBUTED BY CANADIAN LEGION”; total length of approximately 10½ inches; and

2) a plainer one, without stamens; with a central paper ‘button’, rather than the metal embossed one shown above.  The paper centre depicted the head/shoulders image of General Currie, along with the words “CURRIE” above “REMEMBRANCE DAY”.

Royal Canadian Legion ‘Cinderella’ stamp, c1956. Courtesy/© Heather Anne Johnson.

Royal Canadian Legion ‘Cinderella’ stamp, c1956.
Courtesy/© Heather Anne Johnson.

This image shown above is of a Royal Canadian Legion ‘Cinderella’ stamp.  As with the American ‘Cinderella” stamps, it can also be defined as a ‘Poster Stamp’ … because it is delivering a promotional message – in this instance, a message promoting the Canadian Poppy Appeal c1956.   Canadian Ronald G. Lafrenière, a fan and collector of such stamps writes: “The simple definition is that it is a stamp that is not a postage stamp. While postage stamps get all the attention of diehard philatelists … Cinderellas are the neglected step-daughters of philately, not well known, under-appreciated, and well just ignored.

Royal Canadian Legion Remembrance Poppies. Courtesy/© of Paul Cipywnyk.

Royal Canadian Legion Remembrance Poppies. Courtesy/© of Paul Cipywnyk.


Royal Canadian Legion Poppy Pin : Descendant of Madame Guérin’s Poppy. Courtesy/© of Heather Anne Johnson.

Royal Canadian Legion Poppy Pin : Descendant of Madame Guérin’s Poppy.   Courtesy/© of Heather Anne Johnson.

See more Canadian poppies in ‘CHAPTER 7a: THE EMPIRE: DOMINION OF CANADA : POPPY


Once the order for French-made poppies was made in September 1921, the British Legion said “Goodbye” to Madame Anna Guérin – business was concluded.  Had there been enough time to manufacture British-made poppies instead, that farewell would have happened much earlier.  From that point onwards, the poppies that have been distributed within Great Britain have been made by British veterans, under the auspices of the Royal British Legion.   

In the aforementioned February letter, Anna also recalled the 1921 poppy campaign in England, Australia and New Zealand: “… In England the success was even greater, the success has been also very good in Australia.  The New-Zealand Veterans have chosen as Memorial Day, Anzac Day, beginning of April.  But every thing shows that it will be also a success.   And the British People have taken that in the right spirit, it will go on now, every year, nationally in Memoriam, “Lest we forget”.  The Prince of Wales, Field Marshall Haig, are at the head in England, the Governor Generals here and in Australia.   The motto is: “Honor the dead in helping the living; buy and wear a Flander Field Poppy on Memorial Day.”

On 28 July 1923, Madame Guérin was remembered by an article in the ‘Folkestone, Hythe, Sandgate & Cheriton Herald’ – it reminded readers of the reality it knew, still within its memory:


For the next Flanders Poppy Day all the small poppies required will be supplied by the factory at St. James’s-road, Old Kent-road, where over sixty disabled ex-Service men are making these dainty emblems 

When the idea of Poppy Day was first suggested to the British Legion in 1921 by Mme Guerin of Paris, there were only six weeks in which to organise the scheme throughout the country.  The Legion purchased the small “poppies” for 3d. in France, where they were manufactured by the women and children in the devastated areas.   These poppies cost £15, 510.   The first orders for the 1s. poppies were given to London manufacturers, but the demand was so great that it was impossible to get enough to London, and they had to send to France, Coventry and many parts of the country, and were even then unable to meet all demands.   The success of the 1921 Poppy Day far exceeded anticipations, realising £105, 842. 

It was decided that the 1922 scheme should be for the sole benefit of British ex-Service men; the Disabled Society, under the management of Major Howson, undertook to manufacture poppies and for this purpose took the factory at St. James’-road, commencing with a staff of about twenty badly disabled ex-Service men.   They manufactured 5,000,000 poppies last year, and the balance was suppplied by manufacturers. 

Most of the employees have lost a leg.   The factory is now working full time, and by the middle of September upwards of 14,000,000 small poppies and 250,000 large size, and 300 wreaths will have been manufactured.   The men have a canteen on the premises, thus not having to go out for meals; a friend has given a piano, and they are a very happy company. 

It is very difficult for the society to keep its prices low as that at which the poppies could be purchased in the open market, for although paying the full Trade Union rate of wage, 1s. 2d. an hour, they are at the same time competing with women and child labour, which is very much cheaper.   Besides manufacturing 180,000 cornflowers for the Ypres League for Ypres Day, the factory has executed other order for similar institutions, and the work only requires to be more widely known to be used for still more orders of a similar nature. 

Poppies this year will cost the British Legion barely ½p. each, but should the output in the future be greater the cost will be correspondingly lower.   Many parts of the Empire have been supplied, including Gibraltar, Malta, British Army in the East, India, and South Africa, and it is hoped that by the universal adoption of Poppy Day throughout the Empire all poppies will eventually be supplied from the British Legion Disabled Factory.   The factory has now been taken over by the British Legion, but although controlled by that organisation it is still managed and worked by the Disabled Society.  

Major George Arthur Howson was the founding chairman of the Disabled Society in 1920.  The Disabled Society merged with the British Legion in 1925.”

In March 1926, the Lady Haig Poppy Factory was opened in Edinburgh.  When Lady Haig visited Dundee in the November of that year, the Dundee Evening Telegraph (03.11.1926) noted that there was Great difficulty was experienced in getting collectors” and Lady Haig “appealed for more workers”. 

Reference was made to the poppy factory in Edinburgh:  “There were at present 30 men employed and there was a waiting list of many hundreds.  People should be careful that they were buying the genuine Haig poppy.  Each one had a black button in the centre which bore the words “Haig’s Fund.”…”

A “Haig’s Fund” Poppy. Made of crepe paper, it may be as early as 1926. Courtesy/© of Heather Anne Johnson

A “Haig’s Fund” Poppy. Made of crepe paper, it may be as early as 1926. Courtesy/© of Heather Anne Johnson

It appears that it became the custom, for both Great Britain and the United States of America, to send some of their respective Remembrance Poppies to be sold in France.  With regard to the Great Britain, British poppies were sold on Armistice Day, 11 November.

In 1936, however, yellow poppies were sold in aid of the British Haig’s Fund, instead of the scarlet red ones – a decision which was politically led.  A short article in The Dundee Evening Telegraph enlightened its readers on 06 November 1936: 


The Flanders poppies which will be sold in France on Armistice Day in aid of Lord Haig’s Fund will be yellow this year instead of red. 

The change is due to a suggestion that those who wear a red flower may be taken for Communists.—Times.”

Other newspapers reported on this same situation.  There was a more informative article in the Sunderland Daily Echo and Shipping Gazette on Armistice Day, 1936 [sic]:


In France political differences were forgotten in a joint tribute of remembrance.  Both the Front Populaire and the French People’s Party postponed meetings due to-day in order to avoid a possible clash. 

But it has been thought tactful for the British Legion in Paris this year to substitute a yellow poppy for the red one, now the red variety has been adopted as a badge by the Communists. 

The change was made at the urgent request of Legion branches in the South of France, where political feeling is running higher than in the north. 

The Red poppy was retained for the wreath placed below the tablet in Notre Dame commemorating the British Empire’s million dead. 

For the first time children took part in the ceremony at the Arc de Triomphe, filing past the President of the Republic in the same way as troops of the Paris garrison. 

Even more moving than the ceremonies in Paris were the battlefield commemorations.


All through the night watch was kept at Notre Dame de Lorette, the chapel dominating the great Flanders cemetery where thousands of French, British, and Germans lie buried side by side. 

Torches lit at the graves of the Unknown Soldiers in Paris and Brussels were borne from one capital to the other across the battlefields.  The two symbolic flames, borne by ex-soldiers, crossed at Cambrai. 

Just before the Silence, King Leopold “decorated” Belgium’s Unknown Soldier with the Croix de Feu.  The medal was pinned by the King on a cushion held by a soldier.  The cushion was then laid on the Unknown Soldier’s tomb, while trumpeters sounded a salute. 

The Dominions and Colonies shared with Britain in thoughts of those who laid down their lives in the Great War. 

The principal ceremony in India was held at Delhi, where 1,200 ex-Service officers and men, British and Indian, marched past the Viceroy, Lord Linlithgow, at the Memorial Arch. 

The Silence was observed and a fire kindled on the summit of the Arch.”

A British Haig’s Fund Poppy :

A British Haig’s Fund Poppy : “HF” c1930-38 : Courtesy/© of Edward Peacock.

In Chapter 7d, THE EMPIRE : GREAT BRITAIN : POPPY, a 1942 article in the Gloucester Journal (7 Nov) was transcribed which enlightened its readers about the true origin of ‘Poppy Day’.  That article was found a while ago but, with more newspapers coming on-line all the time, another from the same period has now been discovered: dated 23 October 1942.  Part of this earlier article, in the Clitheroe Advertiser and Times, gave identical facts e.g. enlightening its readers about Madame Guérin and her poppies but the remainder of the October article updated readers about the work of the Poppy Factory.  Thus, it is deemed interesting enough to transcribe the October article here [sic]:


Last week, I referred to the Poppy Day appeal, and this week I will give the story of how the idea came to the Legion, somewhat mysteriously.  There were grave doubts at first as to whether it would “take on.”  The story is narrated by Lt.-Colonel E. C. Heath, first General Secretary of the Legion:–

In the later summer of 1921, Colonel Crosfield asked me it I would meet a Madame Guerin.  This little French lady came to Headquarters to show us some small artificial poppies of a type then being made by certain French-women and sold for the benefit of the children in the devastated areas of France.  Would the British Legion care to adopt this emblem as a means of raising money for its own purposes?

There were two firms in France who were ready to supply the material, etc.  She would want a certain percentage for her own organisation in France.  The Finance Committee of the National Executive Council, was concerned with the raising of funds, which were sorely needed if benevolent work on, and reasonable scale was to be undertaken. 

The project was put to them.  Poppies! Who wants poppies?  Madame Guerin, who is she?  What are her credentials?  Do the two French firms exist?

It was August.  The sale and collection, if it was to be made, was due for November 11th.  There was no time to make suitable arrangements on this side of the Channel. If we were to do anything with the idea we must use the French organisation.  But did anybody want poppies—why poppies?

The Legion had taken over, as part of the amalgamation arrangements, the Appeals Department of the Officers’ Association, of which Sir Herbert Brown was the head.  He was sent for, consulted and asked to go over to Paris.  We shall always be grateful to that good lady, Madame Guerin, for her part in the scheme).  He reported to the next meeting of the Finance Committee that all appeared to be in order,  The firms did exist; they were ready to supply the material to the organisation for making the poppies; the women in the devastated areas of France would make them.

Sir Herbert was asked to go back to Paris and order 1½ million poppies.  I said to him before he left Eccleston Square:  “For goodness sake order three million, whatever else you do.”

What he finally did I know not but I do know that a very large number (for those days) of poppies were sold on that November 11th; also, that not a vestige of pink blotting paper remained in the neighbourhood of Eccleston Square!

By whatever means it was done, that first Poppy Day of 1921, under a scheme rushed through between August and November, achieved a total of £106,000.  The total to date is nine millions.

Originating in France, the poppy-making industry was transplanted to England in 1922.  The late Major Geo. Howson, chairman of the Disabled Society, founded the poppy factory in that year with a grant from the Unity Relief Fund, later the Legion Relief Committee.  The chairman of that fund was Major Paget Hett, who, on Major Howson’s death in November, 1935, succeeded him as chairman of the Poppy Factory, a position he holds today.

The first home of the factory was a workroom placed at its disposal by a collar manufacturer, a Mr. Mitchell, in St. Jame’s-road, Bermondsey, off the Old Kent Road.  A start was made with only five employees.  Four of them are still making poppies and one is factory foreman.

By 1923, when Mr. C. Howe, present secretary-manager, joined the staff, the employees numbered 50; and in March, 1926, when Earl Haig handed over the deeds of the present factory at Richmond, there were 150 workers, all disabled in the Great War.

From the beginning Major Howson had no intention of relying on sweated labour in slum attics for the supply of Legion poppies.  In 1929 additional premises were acquired; in 1932 the Princess Royal opened the main factory; and in 1936 further premises for extension were taken.  Major Howson made the Richmond factory spacious and well ventilated, a show-place which has been visited and admired by thousands all over the world.

The scope of the factory’s work was widened to include the manufacture of metal “Haig Fund” centres, cardboard centres, boxes and other component parts of the poppy.   The normal full complement of employees is 400 but, at present only 350 are regularly at work, including five men of this war.  All are war-disabled.  More than half are limbless.

The total number of poppies made since the factory was begun is 497 millions; the total of wreaths 500,000.

The net certified annual profits are transferred to the British Legion Benevolent Fund to be set against the gross cost of poppies.

Up to the end of the last financial year (November, 1941), wages paid from the beginning of the factory amounted to £1,086,030.

The value to the factory of sales of poppies in the same period was £2,240,000.

ALF WOOD, Secretary of the Local Branch, 63 Whalley Road, Clitheroe.”

Life after Poppy Lady Madame Guérin : 1942 British Haig's Fund

Life after Poppy Lady Madame Guérin : 1942 British Haig’s Fund “Austerity” Poppies. Courtesy/© of Heather Anne Johnson.


An aerial view of the Poppy Factory and Housing Estate in Richmond, Surrey. c1932. Courtesy of Heather Anne Johnson.

An aerial view of the Poppy Factory and Housing Estate in Richmond, Surrey (c1932). Courtesy of Heather Anne Johnson.


Accommodation blocks at the Poppy Factory's Housing Estate in Richmond, Surrey. Courtesy of Heather Anne Johnson.

Accommodation blocks at the Poppy Factory’s Housing Estate in Richmond, Surrey. Courtesy of Heather Anne Johnson.


Internal scene, assembling individual poppies : Poppy Factory in Richmond, Surrey (Date unknown). Courtesy of Heather Anne Johnson.

Internal scene, assembling individual poppies : Poppy Factory in Richmond, Surrey. Courtesy of Heather Anne Johnson.


Internal scene, making wreaths : Poppy Factory in Richmond, Surrey (Date unknown). Courtesy of Heather Anne Johnson.

Internal scene, making wreaths : Poppy Factory in Richmond, Surrey (Date unknown). Courtesy of Heather Anne Johnson.

The photograph above was discovered by Mélanie Presseau Dumais of the Musée du Royal Montreal Regiment (The Royal Montreal Regiment Museum) in Montreal, Canada.  By mutual arrangement, Mélanie symbolically colourised the image, as shown below.   It was used to market an interesting event, held recently at the Musée du Royal Montreal Regiment – it was a successful poppy making workshop, which was attended by 200 people.

Assembling individual poppies : Poppy Factory in Richmond, Surrey Courtesy of Musée du Royal Montreal Regiment & Heather A. Johnson.

Assembling individual poppies : Poppy Factory in Richmond, Surrey
Courtesy of Musée du Royal Montreal Regiment & Heather A. Johnson.


English Royal British Legion Poppy : Modern. 2 petals + 1 leaf. Image courtesy/© Heather Anne Johnson.

English Royal British Legion Poppy : Modern. 2 petals + 1 leaf.  Image courtesy/© Heather Anne Johnson.


'Poppies Wave' by artist Paul Cummins and designer Tom Piper at Lincoln Castle, Lincolnshire, England. Courtesy/© Heather Anne Johnson.

‘Poppies Wave’ by artist Paul Cummins and designer Tom Piper at Lincoln Castle, Lincolnshire, England. Image courtesy/© Heather Anne Johnson.



Australia kept faith with Madame Anna Guérin for longer than the afore-mentioned U.S.A. and Great Britain.  The country continued to be loyal to French-made poppies until 1926, inclusive. Anna never visited Australia but she kept up communication with the veterans of Australia’s Returned Sailor’s & Soldier’s Imperial League.  She would have wanted to show appreciation and give thanks but it was also imperative to keep the momentum going.  However, eventually, the Australian veterans were given top priority.

In 1922, from the beginning of November, newspapers like Tasmania’s Launceston Examiner (01 November) informed their readers of a letter received from Madame Guérin

Poppy Day Appeal. 

The president of the Returned Sailors and Soldiers Imperial League has received a letter from Madame Guerin, organiser of the French Children’s League in which she conveys the thanks of that league for the assistance received through the sale of poppies last year. “Until recently,” she wrote, “I thought it would be possible for me to come to Australia this year and to assist you in the success of your second Poppy Day. It is with many regrets that I have been compelled to postpone this pleasure. I know that your people and your organisation would have welcomed the news that I should have brought from those flanders fields which your gallant soldiers so nobly saved.  It would have been a great joy to me to have the privilege of speaking in your schools and to the returned soldiers of Australia, but it is necessary for me to go to other European allied nations, lest they should forget that they must have in memoriam their Poppy Day on the anniversary of armistice. I have pleasure in advising you that, as a result of requests received from so many mothers and dependents in Canada, United States and England committees have been formed in all towns, villages. etc., for the purpose of assisting those dependents to have wreaths of poppies placed on the graves of their brave relatives. In connection with this scheme it is suggested that the returned soldiers’ organisations throughout the allied countries should make an appeal to the parents of deceased soldiers buried in France to subscribe to the cost of a wreath of poppies, which would be placed by local committees in accordance with their desire.  A certificate, by the Mayor of the town or village near by the cemetery, would be sent to each relative subscribing for a wreath, certifying that same had been placed on the grave. Our idea is that all such wreaths should be placed on the graves during the week of Easter. The poppies are made of waterproof material so that the wreaths shall last a long while.   

In connection with the proposal for the placing of wreaths on the graves of the fallen, the league has decided to give this its wholehearted support. The wreaths are about to 10 inches in diameter, and are made of eleven large poppies and two palms. The cost of these wreaths will be £1 each, and relatives or business firms wishing to have a wreath laid on a soldier’s grave are requested to send that amount to the state secretary of the Returned Soldiers’ League, Murray-street, Hobart, or to the secretary of the local branch of the league.  It is essential that the name, rank, number, and unit of the dead soldier should be given, together with the name of the place where he is buried. The name and address of the subscriber must also be given, so that the Mayor of the nearest town may send a certificate showing that the wreath has been placed on the grave.”

In addition, The Register (Adelaide, SA.), on 09 November 1922, wrote: “… The little silk poppies that will be sold by the R.S.S.I.L.A. on Poppy Day are the exact replicas in size and colour of the poppy that blooms in Flanders fields, and were made by the war widows and orphans of the devastated area in France. To buy them will be greater than a duty— a service of honour.”

In 1923, the Western Mail (Perth, WA.) reported on 04 January 1923:

POPPY DAY. Melbourne, Jan, 2. 

Mr. G. J. C. Dyett, Federal president of the Returned Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Imperial League of Australia, has received from Madame E. Guerin, known as the “Poppy Lady” of France, who initiated the Inter-Allied Poppy Day scheme, a communication in which she states that the statement of receipts and expenditure received by her in connection with the Poppy Day held in Australia on the anniversary of Armistice Day, 1921 was the clearest she had received in connection with any campaign.   She added that France was grateful for the sentiments expressed in the letter which accompanied statement, and for the genuine interest of the great country of Australia towards France and her poor women and children for whose relief the money was raised.”

The Daily News (Perth, WA. 06 October) reported: 

SOLDIERS CONFERENCE CONCLUDEDThe seventh annual conference of the Returned Soldiers’ League was concluded to-day.  POPPY DAY. The president drew attention to a flag and bannerette which had been received by the league from Madame Guerin (France) as a token of gratitude for the money raised for the widows and orphans of French soldiers on Poppy (Armistice) Day.  It was resolved that a letter of appreciation should be sent to Madame Guerin.   Congress decided that in the event of Armistice Day falling on a Sunday (as this year) Poppy Day should be held on Saturday.”

In 1924, an article in the Warwick Daily News (Queensland. 06 Nov.) highlighted the fact that not every town in Australia was participating in Poppy Appeals:  Poppy Appeal in Warwick.   In the year 1921, a French lady, Madame Guerin, conceived the happy idea of despatching to Australia thousands of poppies for sale, the proceeds to be devoted to giving attention to the graves of Australian soldiers in France.  Since then the appeal has been continued, and on Saturday, Monday and Tuesday, next it will be made in Warwick for the first time. The matter has been enthusiastically taken up by the Warwick branch of the R.S.S.I.L.A., principally through its ladies’ committee, while the assistance of the Women’s Club and of the Country Women’s Association has also been procured.  Already 200 French poppies have been received.  It is notified in this issue that ladies willing to assist in selling poppies, in conjunction with the organ-isations above mentioned, are invited to attend a meeting at the R.S.S.I.L.A. rooms on Friday next at 2.30 p.m. This appeal has a peculiar significance to all in whom memory of the great war has not been overlaid with other matters of daily concern, and we trust the appeal will meet with the success that it certainly deserves.

Remember those lonely graves among the poppies in Flanders.  Buy a Poppy.”

In 1925, protestations began being aired in public.  Brisbane’s Telegraph (17 Feb) reported:  Returned Soldiers. Busy Day at Conference. The R.S.S.I.L.A. annual conference got through a considerable amount of business at yesterday’s session. … POPPY APPEAL.  Resolved that the district conference emphatically protests against the appeal made on November 11, of each year for funds for despatch to France, more particularly in view of the destitution amongst returned soldiers, amply evidenced by the frequent appeals for funds and even left off clothing, through the columns of the metropolitan Press, and that while this appeal is continued for such a purpose, the sub-branches in this district refuse to participate.  The resolution was carried with one dissentient. It was pointed out that Madame Guerin had sent out ten thousand poppies which arrived on an already overloaded market.

In 1926, Perth’s Daily News (09 Nov.) confirms, as other newspapers do, that the country was still using French poppies but also highlights that only a proportion of sales would go to France:

POPPY DAY.  For R.S.L. Funds.  Poppies will be sold for the benefit of R.S.L. Amelioration Funds next Thursday by parties of ladies acting for metropolitan sub-branches of the R.S.L.   Many country centres have also applied to the League headquarters for poppies for disposal in aid of country sub-branch purposes.  

It is expected that all citizens will show their appreciation of the sacrifices made by Australian soldiers in the great war and wear a poppy in remembrance.  

The ladies of the West Perth sub-branch R.S.L. will have the assistance of Miss Maud Fane, of the J. C. Williamson Opera Company, and as the poppies were obtained from Madame Guerin, in France, a proportion of sales will benefit French war orphans. 

Armistice commemoration services will commence at St. George’s Cathedral and the Wesley Church at 10.45 a.m. Thursday, and the Premier (Mr. Collier) has requested the cessation of all normal business for two minutes, commencing at 11 a.m.”

1927 was the first year that disabled Australian veterans made the poppies that were distributed on the streets of Australia. Newspapers like Victoria’s Shepparton Advertiser (07 November) reported on their local appeal: Poppy Day. Mrs. H. N. Butt has consented to supervise, the sale of silken poppies on Armistice Day in Shepparton. It is to be hoped that the little silken emblem of remembrance will be freely purchased and worn on November 11.  The poppies have been made by disabled Australian soldiers and dependents, and are beautifully got up.”

Finally, Australia had said “Au revoir Madame Guérin”. 

Australian Remembrance Poppy Corsages. Courtesy of Heather Anne Johnson.

Australian Remembrance Poppy Corsages. Courtesy of Heather Anne Johnson.


A 1937 Australian Remembrance Poppy. Courtesy/© of Peter Doyle.

1937 Australian Remembrance Poppy. Courtesy/© of Peter Doyle.


An Australian 1943 paper Remembrance Poppy. Courtesy/© Heather Anne Johnson.

An Australian 1943 paper Remembrance Poppy.
Courtesy/© Heather Anne Johnson.


Australian WW2 Remembrance Poppy pin - flocked card. Courtesy/© of Heather Anne Johnson.

Australian WW2 Remembrance Poppy pin – flocked card. Courtesy/© of Heather A. Johnson.


Australian R.S.L. ‘Lest We Forget’ badges. Circa late 1940’s. Courtesy/© Andy Chaloner.

Australian R.S.L. ‘Lest We Forget’ badges. Circa late 1940’s.
Courtesy/© Andy Chaloner.


Australian R.S.L. Poppies. 1960s. Courtesy/© of Heather Anne Johnson.

Australian R.S.L. Poppies. 1960s. Courtesy/© of Heather Anne Johnson.


Australian Remembrance Poppies. Courtesy/© Heather Anne Johnson.

Australian Remembrance Poppies. Courtesy/© of Heather Anne Johnson.


Australian R.S.L. Poppy Appeal tag and pin. 2016. Courtesy/© of Heather A. Johnson.

Australian R.S.L. Poppy Appeal tag and pin. 2016. Courtesy/© of Heather Anne Johnson.

N.B. Australians also wear sprigs of rosemary on Anzac and Armistice Days.  The herb grows wild on Gallipoli, a peninsula with poignant First World War memories for Australians.


Like Australia, New Zealand remained loyal to Madame Anna Guérin.   In actual fact, New Zealand was the most loyal of all the World War One Allied nations.  Like Australia, Anna never visited the country but she kept in touch with the veterans of the Returned and Services’ Association by letter.   From a New Zealand gentleman’s recollection, many New Zealand women remained “representatives” of Madame Guérin for years.

In 1923, Wellington’s Evening Post, on 11 April 1923, looked ahead to that year’s Poppy campaign.  It quoted “Sniper” (from ‘Quick March’):

“Poppy Day” for 1923 is fast approaching, says “Sniper” in “Quick March,” and may success attend the labours of the noble lady-sellers, for without them last “Poppy Day” would not have been the success it was. This year 250,000 small poppies and 30,000 large ones have been ordered, and each district will receive what it ordered several months ago, instead of a number in proportion to” its population. Born in France, the movement to make the Flanders Poppy the inter-Allied memorial flower has spread in two years to Britain, Canada, U.S.A., Australia, and New Zealand. Thus this humble, scarlet little flower is doing noble world work by bringing the returned soldier organisations of the Allied nations into’ a compact body; which some day may develop into a compact International Congress of ex-fighting men. To all ex-soldiers, and to the vast array of the Relatives of the fallen, the poppy has now become the symbol of proud remembrance. At the end of 1921, the N.Z.R.S.A. decided to adopt the 24th April, the day before Anzac Day, as Poppy Day for New Zealand. Out of £13,166 collected last year, £3694-15s 7d was cabled to France to relieve distress in the battle-areas, and information from Madame Guerin (the founder) disclosed the pleasing fact that New Zealand was highest in her contributions to the widows and orphan children who had helped to make the poppies. £9471 was spent in helping to provide wages for unemployed soldiers, throughout the Dominion, and never in the history of the, N.Z.R.S.A. has it done so much practical good as what tins money, augmented by local subsidy, did iii the winter of 1922.  The money was not given as a dole, but was used” in providing wages for useful work done in cities and towns. The married ex-soldiers were helped first, and many a wife must have blessed the successful ‘Poppy Day.”

After the 1923 Poppy Day, ‘Quick March’ (10 May 1923) reported that the demand for poppies in Christchurch was so great that the supply had been exhausted shortly after mid-day.   The article acknowledged the “noble service performed by” the New Zealand women:

Poppy Day. 

Poppy Day for 1923 is now a thing of the past, but the N.Z.R.S.A. cannot allow the event to pass by without thanking the ladies throughout New Zealand for the great part they have again displayed in making the day a success.  The results of course are not available, but Auckland’s total is in the vicinity of £1600; the ladies of Wellington netted about £1000 whilst Christchurch raised £853.  So great was the demand for poppies in the last place that the supply had been sold shortly after mid-day.  The day has evidently been another success; it is difficult to see how it could be otherwise, when the objects to which the money is devoted are reflected upon by the public. 

The history of the Great War as far as it effected New Zealand can never be complete without some acknowledgement of the noble services performed by our New Zealand women.  

No country in the world can claim the same contributions per head that our collectors have obtained from the public since 1915 – the date of our first “Street Days.”

In spite of rain and snow, and in spite of refusal or black looks, our ladies have never deserted the cause of our soldier boys; the same street corners saw the same collectors doing the same noble work many times a year. 

Zealandia’s ex-soldiers will never forget the practical patriotism and kindness meted out by our women-folk. 

About £9500 was gathered last year to help in procuring work; this was supplemented by subsidies granted by local bodies. 

It is to be hoped that the local bodies throughout New Zealand will do their utmost to increase their levies this year, as the employment of ex-soldiers on special work makes employment for the civilian out of work much easier.  The present winter points to being long, and many men are already in search of employment, therefore the bigger the subsidies granted the longer will the ex-soldiers be employed and consequently his equally unfortunate civilian brother.”

On 21 November 1923, Christchurch’s ‘Press’ newspaper reported that the Canterbury District Executive had received a French flag from Madame Guérin “Poppy Lady” of France, for presentation to the Returned Services’ Association selling the most poppies prior to Anzac Day. The District Executive had decided that this flag should be presented to the Christchurch R.S.A.

In 1924, Christchurch’s ‘Press’ newspaper rallied its readers on 11 April: “POPPY DAY. WOMEN’S COMMITTEE.   A meeting was called by Mrs H. T. J Thacker for the purpose of making arrangements for the sale of poppies on April 23rd. … …  A meeting was called by Mrs H. T. J. Thacker for the purpose of making arrangements for the sale of poppies on April 23rd.  … …  An offer was received from the members of the W.C.T.U. to assist.  Last year Christchurch was responsible for the largest sum collected in the Dominion on Poppy Day, and was the recipient of a beautiful, flag presented by Madame Guerin, the “Poppy Lady of France.”  Members of the committee are hoping to keep the flag this year. It was decided to solicit the aid of the large schools and colleges, several of which had been very helpful last year.”

On 23 April 1924, The Press enlightened its readers thus:  GENERAL NEWS.  “The Press” will not be published on Friday, Anzac Day. … … Complete arrangements have been made for the sale of poppies in the streets to-day. There will be stands at all the vantage points in the city, and the committee has appointed various ladies and institutions to control the stands. Last year Christchurch headed the list in the Dominion on Poppy Day, and received the flag presented by Madame Guerin, the “Poppy Lady of France.” This year it is hoped that Christchurch will maintain its position, and no effort will be spared to this end.”

In 1925, the ‘Press’ (21 April) printed:


Arrangements for Poppy Day, to be observed to-morrow, have been completed, and as a large number of ladies have undertaken to assist in the sale of poppies in aid of the Returned Soldiers’ Association’s Unemployment Fund it is fully anticipated that the results this year will eclipse those of last year.                 

Zest will be imparted into the efforts of the ladies as they are anxious to recover the flag, presented by Guerin, the “poppy lady of France” which is held by the Centre in the Dominion that tops the list of contributions received on Poppy Day. In 1923 the Christchurch ladies had the honour of winning the coveted flag, and this year they hope to regain it from last year’s winners. …”

In the New Zealand Herald (on 13 May):


The executive committee of the Auckland Returned Soldiers’ Association met last evening, Mr. S. A. Carr presiding.   A resolution of appreciation was passed to Lady Gunson and her helpers for their valuable services on Poppy Day, and also for suggestions and recommendations for future Poppy Days. Various subcommittees to act during the year were set up.”

In the New Zealand Herald (30 April 1925):


Collectors for charitable purposes meet some strange experiences.  One lady, who was selling poppies at Napier last week, met a resident who received a poppy and then flatly declined to give more, than 3d. The embarrassed vendor argued and urged in vain, and at length gave the man his 3d back. A spasm of generosity then stirred his frame, for he pocketed the 3d and proffered 6d.”

In 1926, the New Zealand Herald (22 April) told of how Poppy Day funds would be shared:


Poppy Day will be held in Auckland tomorrow. The executive of the Auckland Returned Soldiers’ Association has decided to allocate the net proceeds of this year’s sales as follows:—Fifty per cent, to the Veterans’ Home. 30 per cent, to disabled soldiers and 20 per cent, toward the relief of necessitous cases among fit men.” 

In Christchurch’s ‘Press’ two days later, an article carried news received via Press Association Telegrams:


There were few people in the streets of the City yesterday who did not carry in the lapels of their coats a scarlet poppy for remembrance.   The annual “Poppy Day” appeal is for funds for the relief of unemployment among returned soldiers, and it always meets with a generous response. Yesterday the energetic collectors were stationed at all the main corners in the City, and the work they did ensured a good collection. The final result of the collection was £650, with several amounts to come in.  DUNEDIN, April 23. Poppy Day here was a great success, and last year’s excellent total was exceeded by almost £I00, with country boxes yet to come. To-day’s total was £630. The Exhibition proved a good hunting ground for the sellers of the flowery. …”

In 1927, the Auckland Star (11 February) printed this article: Poppy Day. Poppy Day will be held in Auckland on April 22 next, and arrangements for the street collection to take place on that date will be put in hand by the Auckland Returned Soldiers’ Association almost immediately. The association had an abundance of red poppies to sell, and it has not been necessary to get a new supply from France this year.  Last night it was decided to approach the City Council and ask for official sanction for a street collection on the date selected.” 

In 1928, French-made poppies were still sent to New Zealand: “… This year in addition to purchasing poppies from France the organisers have bought some from the workers of the British Legion, associated with the scheme of the Prince of Wales and the late Earl Haig. They are of the small variety, and well finished. In addition, the local executive has had some large poppies made in Auckland. These, too, are of attractive appearance. …”   (Auckland Star, 19 April 1928) 

1929 was the first year that New Zealand’s poppies were not made by the widows and orphans of the devastated areas of France: “… Last year £1400 was realised from this source. Ever since the war the poppies have been supplied by France, but this year a departure has been made, and they are being purchased from the British Legion of Disabled Soldiers, in London. Thus, by buying them next month, citizens will have the added satisfaction of assisting Imperial soldiers as well as soldiers in their own country.  Auckland Star (12 March).

In 1930, the New Zealand poppy supply came from the British Legion.  A very long article in Christchurch’s ‘Press’ (4 April) illustrated just how quickly the truth about Madame Guérin had been lost:



“Buy a poppy for remembrance and wear it on Anzac Day.”

This is the slogan used by the Christchurch Returned Soldiers’ Association and it is hoped that on April 24th—the day before Anzac Day—every man, woman, and child will spend shilling on a poppy, and thus be instrumental in finding employment for returned soldiers who are in distress.

Cases containing 30,000 poppies arrived at the R.S.A. rooms yesterday morning from the poppy factory in Surrey, England, and on April 24th they will be sold throughout the City, suburbs, and country districts.  The Association is making a particularly strong appeal this year, and large numbers of people have banded themselves into committees to attend to the distribution of the tokens.   

People often ask, “How did Poppy Day start?”   In 1921 a woman, having lost her son at the war, and who was visiting the battlefields of France, noticed large numbers of peasants manufacturing artificial poppies and selling them to tourists. She was struck with the idea that the poppies could be manufactured in England, to the great benefit of disabled soldiers, who could be assisted by the proceeds of sales organised on a large scale. Putting her thoughts into action she placed the scheme before the British Empire Service League, in London, and the League fell in immediately with her negotiations.   

Later a poppy factory was started in Surrey, England, and now 275 disabled soldiers are employed there, manufacturing the emblems and supplying them to the whole of the British Empire. In 1921 £100,000 worth of poppies were sold on Armistice Day.

New Zealand differs in its sale day from other parts of the Empire as the poppies are sold on Poppy Day, which is generally just prior to Anzac Day.   Since 1921 the sales have increased tremendously and now the Surrey factory is very fully occupied. The proceeds of poppy sales are used for two purposes:  (1) The relief of unemployment among returned men by subsidies to local bodies, which in return gives preference to soldiers; (2) the relief of distress among needy returned soldiers and their dependents. …”

No word was been found in the National Library of New Zealand’s ‘Paperspast’ newspapers of “Madame Guérin” or the “Poppy Lady of France” in the handful of years beyond 1925.   Not until 1930 was the Guérin name found again, in one article.  In that American sourced article, within Wellington’s Evening Post (07 July 1930), it is not surprising that Anna is mentioned second to Moina Michael:


(From “The Post’s” Representative.) NEW YORK, 11th June.

Who conceived the idea of adopting the poppy as a symbol of tho sacrifices paid by the soldiers of the world war? The claim is made that Miss Moina Michael, a Southern woman, got this inspiration when, in the last weeks of the war, she read Colonel John McRae’s poem, “In Flanders Field”:  

To you from falling hands we throw, The torch; be yours to hold it high. If ye break with us who die, We shall not sleep, though poppies grow In Flanders Field.  

Miss Michael wrote an answer in verse, which ended thus: And now the torch and poppy red. We’ll wear in honour of our dead. Tear not that you have died for naught; We’ll teach the lessons that you wrought In Flanders Field.  

Through the Y.M.C.A., with which she was connected, Miss Michael promulgated her plan that poppies should be worn for remembrance.  She wrote to the War Department, educational institutions, women’s clubs, and other organisations, urging adoption of the poppy as a memorial tribute. The American Legion of Georgia agreed. 

The idea spread to other lands. Mme. Guerin, of Paris, organised, the American and French Children’s League and sold poppies for the benefit of orphans in France. 

In England the poppy programme was adopted in 1921 by Earl Haig’s British Legion, and since that time more than £2,000,000 has been collected for ex-service men. In 1925, the British sales reached £600,000. 

Instead of the poppy becoming a national emblem, it became international. In Europe, nineteen countries wear it. Poppies are worn in Japan, China, and Mexico. Over £180,000 was raised in the 1928 sales in United States; 39 hospitals and workshops were used to make them, employing 2348 persons. 

Miss Michael is a teacher, but for the whole of her adult life she has been doing social service.”

1931 was the first year that disabled veterans in New Zealand made the poppies that were distributed on the streets of New Zealand.

Although the women who had been New Zealand’s original “poppy girls” and the Returned Soldiers’ Association veterans who had met Colonel Moffat knew the truth, it was the beginning of New Zealand forgetting about Madame Guérin and her Remembrance Poppy Day idea.

New Zealand had said “Au revoir Madame Guérin”.

Cloth Poppy, Royal New Zealand Returned and Services' Association (estab. 1916), gifted by Ruth and Olive Ellison, Collection of Hawke’s Bay Museums Trust, Ruawharo Tā-ū-rangi, m54/22. Courtesy/© of the Hawke’s Bay Museums Trust.

Cloth Poppy, Royal New Zealand Returned and Services’ Association (estab. 1916), gifted by Ruth and Olive Ellison, Collection of Hawke’s Bay Museums Trust, Ruawharo Tā-ū-rangi, m54/22. Courtesy/© of the Hawke’s Bay Museums Trust.

Please find, above and below, images of two early New Zealand cloth Remembrance Poppies.   They are exhibits within the Hawke’s Bay Museums Trust Collection, Ruawharo Tā-ū-rangi, 1 Tennyson Street, Napier 4110, New Zealand.   It is the author’s opinion that: the “In Memoriam” tagged poppy may be a British ‘Poppy Factory’ poppy dating to 1929 or 1930 (1928 was the last year for Madame Guérin’s French-made poppies); and the ‘Returned Soldiers Association’ poppy will not be earlier than 1931, the first year that New Zealand veterans made their country’s Remembrance Poppies.   [N.B. correction welcome]

Cloth Poppy, Royal New Zealand Returned and Services' Association (estab. 1916), gifted by Ruth and Olive Ellison, Collection of Hawke’s Bay Museums Trust, Ruawharo Tā-ū-rangi, m54/22. Courtesy/© of the Hawke’s Bay Museums Trust.

Cloth Poppy, Royal New Zealand Returned and Services’ Association (estab. 1916), gifted by Ruth and Olive Ellison, Collection of Hawke’s Bay Museums Trust, Ruawharo Tā-ū-rangi, m54/22. Courtesy/© of the Hawke’s Bay Museums Trust.



New Zealand ‘Returned and Services Association’ Remembrance Poppy. 2016. Image courtesy/© of A. & P. H.


A cross made by the Flower Guild, placed near the Memorial to the Fallen at the Cathedral Church of St. Mary, New Plymouth - made with artificial Remembrance Poppies and laurel leaves. 2016. Image courtesy/© of A. & P. H.

Cross of poppies made by the Flower Guild, placed near the Memorial to the Fallen at Cathedral Church of St. Mary, New Plymouth. 2016. Image courtesy/© of A. & P. H.


On 07 November 1922, the New Zealand newspaper Northern Advocate’ printed an article relating to a letter the Returned Soldiers’ Association’ had received from Madame Guérin – the letter made mention of France and Belgium:

“For this second year everyone is hoping great results. England and Scotland are hoping to sell fifteen million poppies, France a good portion of it, little Belgium also, and to make by this simple and magnificent way to honour the dead enough money to help during the coming winter all those ex-soldiers who are still in distress. 

Writing within her quickly-written 1941 Synopsis, Madame Anna Guérin documented much.  In it, we are enlightened for the first time that she went “to Belgium , to Italy and had also their Poppies made for their first year . In these 2 countries they have discontinued their National Poppy’s Day some years ago.” 

To date, it is not known when Anna Guérin would have visited Belgium or Italy and little is known about just how long France, Belgium and Italy (during the 1920’s era) wore the poppy as a remembrance emblem.

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